What is Structures in C Programming

STRUCTURES IN C PROGRAMMING

DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION:

A structure is a user-defined datatype in C language which allows us to combine data of different types together.

  • Consider an example If I have to record the particulars of a student then I need to collect his name, age, gender, etc. Then I would have to do this for each student.
  • It is almost similar to an array with the exception that an array encompasses data of similar type.
  • The major difference between an array and structure is that a structure can uphold data of totally different types which makes it more user-friendly to program.
  • Inside a structure, data is collected in the form of records.

Defining a structure:

  • The specific keyword struct is used to define any structure.

STRUCTURE SYNTAX:

Struct[structure_name]

{

[structure_objects];

}

DECLARING STRUCTURE VARIABLES SEPARATELY:

struct student

{

char name[20];

int age;

Char name;

Char gender;

};

DECLARING STRUCTURE OBJECTS:

struct student

{

char name[20];

int age;

Char name;

Char gender;

} St1,St2;

  • Here St1 AND St2 are the objects /variables to the structure student as defined by the user.

Accessing structure members:

  • These elements can be accessed in many amounts of ways.
  • Therefore assignment can be done in multiple ways.
  • For the successful assignment of any value to an object within a structure, the member of the structure has to assigned to a specific operator known as dot operator/period operator.

EXAMPLE:

#include<stdio.h>

#include<string.h>

struct student

{
char name[25];

char branch;

Int age;

char gender;

};

Int main()

{
struct student s1;

s1.age=34;

strcpy(s1.name,”KEVIN”);

printf(“Age of student s1 is %d”,s1.age);

printf(“name of student s1 is %s”,s1.name);

return 0;

}

INITIALIZATION IN STRUCTURE:

  • If you want to directly initialize the structure variables u can do in the following format:-

Void main()
{

Struct Patient

{

float height;

int weight;

Int age

};

Struct patient p1= {6.5, 35,24};

}

ARRAY OF STRUCTURE:

  • Here each individual element of array will represent a structure variable/member.
  • Consider for example STRUCT employee emp[10].
  • This basically denoted that there is a maximum of 10 employee objects for the structure called employee.

NESTED STRUCTURE:

  • There is another condition called nested structure which basically implies a structure contained within a structure.

EXAMPLE:

STRUCTURE 1 STUDENT ADDRESS:

struct stu_address

{

Int street;
Char *state;

Char *state;

Char *country

}

STRUCTURE 2 : STUDENT DATA:

Struct stu_data

{

int stu_id;

Int stu roll no;

Struct stu_address stu_add;

}

Here stu_add is declared as an object common to both structures.

USE OF TYPEDEF IN STRUCTURE:

  • The primary function of this typedef is to make the program a lot legible and easier.
  • It is like an alternative form of structure.

EXAMPLE:

CODE WITHOUT USING TYPEDEF

struct home_add

{

int street;

char *state;

char *country;

char *town;

};

struct home_add var;

var.town = “agra”;

CODE WITH TYPEDEF:

typedef struct home_add

{
int street;

Char *state;

Char *country;

Char *town;

};addr;

addr var;

var.town = “agra”;

STRUCTURE AS FUNCTION ARGUMENTS:

#include<stdio.h>

Struct student

{
Char name[20];

Int roll no;

}

void show(struct student st);

Void main()

{

Struct student std;
printf(“\n Enter the student record name\n:”);

scanf(“%s”,std.name);

printf(“\nEnter the student roll number\n”);

scanf(“%d”,&std.roll no);

show(std);

}
void show(struct student st)

{

printf(\n”Student name is %s\n”,st.name);

printf(“\nStudent roll number is %d”,st.roll no);

}

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