8051 embedded c program

8051 embedded c program

 

Write a program for make led ON when  if switch is pressed, make it OFF when the switch is released (use push button ).

 

#include<reg51.h>

sbit c=P1^1;                   // assigning port p1 pin 1 for use switch

void main()

{

P1=0x0ff;                      // making p1 port is input

 P2=0x00;                       // making p2 port is output

  P1=0x00;                     // initially make it port 1 is OFF condition           

while(1)                            // infinite loop

{

 if(c==1)                         // when the input is HIGH (switch is pressed)

  {

P2=0x0ff;                       // p2 will go to high(led ON)

  }

 else

  {

   P2=0x00;         // p2 will go to low(led OFF)

  }

 }

 

Explanation:

 

Here we are going to make a lid on and off when the button is pressed. IN 8051 is having a 4 port, generally the 4 port inbuiled  GPIO pins. This pins are using as an either input or output pin. We assign the port pin as an input pin for the switch. In main function, we should assign which is the input and output port. Here we are using the port 1 for input and the port 2 is for output. Then made one while loop for continuous checking. When the input goes to high the LED will ON otherwise it will be OFF.

 

Embedded C Compiler

Embedded C Compiler

 

A compiler translates the high level programming languages in which programs are written into the machine languages so that the microprocessors which are embedded in electronic products can actually understand.

Where the compilation is process of converting the high-level programming into the machine language.

A compiler executes four major steps:

  • Scanning:

The scanner reads one character at a time from the source code and keeps track of which character is present in which line.

  • Lexical Analysis:

the sequence of characters which appear in the source code are converted by compiler into a series of strings of characters which are also known as tokens, these are associated by a particular rule by a program which is called a lexical analyzer. The lexical analyzer uses symbol table to store the words in the source code that correspond to the token generated.

  • Syntactic Analysis:

The third step includes performing the syntactic analysis,this step is performed to check whether the tokens which are generated during lexical analysis are in correct order as per their usage. The set of keywords which are in correct order, which leads to expected result is called as syntax. To ensure the syntactic accuracy the compiler has to check the source code.

 

  • Semantic Analysis:

The fourth step is semantic analysis.this step includes many intermediate steps.

The first step is to check the structure of tokens along with their orders with respect to the given language grammar.the parser and analyzer interpret the meaning of the token structure to generate an intermediate code, which is called the object code. The object code contains the instructions which represents the processor action for a particular token when encountered in program. Lastly the full code is parsed and interpreted to check is their any optimizations are possible. Once the optimization process is performed, the correct modified tokens are inserted in the main object code to produce the final object code, which will be inside the file.

Some of the compiler available for embedded c are

GCC by GNU.

IAR C/C++ Compilers by IAR systems.

Intel C compiler by intel

Keil C/C++ Compilers by Keil company.

Ch by SoftIntegration, Inc.

XL c by IBM.

There are different compilers are available for embedded c.the selection of compiler for embedded depends on the architecture of embedded system.

         The most often used compiler is “ported” gcc compiler and another popular compiler is keil.for a standard architecture/CPU supported by GCC, then GCC should be good.

The good software for ARM might be Keil or IAR C compilers. IAR also supports ot many other processors and microcontrollers.

 

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Embedded c to assembly converter

Embedded c to assembly converter

 

Here we will see how to convert c file to assembly file in keil software.

 

Step1:

Consider the below picture. This is the small example program and this is in the c file.

Now going to convert into assembly .

 

 

step 2:

Click the target. Will get the option for target. Select that option the one window will open. That i so in the below.

 

 

 

 

Step 3 :

Now to select the listing menu. You will get the below dialog box.

 

 

 

 

Step 4:

In the above window you can see the “assembly code” . to tick that box and select ok.

 

 

 

Step 5:

Move to the file location. You can refer the top of the window. You will get the path of this file where it saved.

The assembly file of the corresponding c file, you can get the assembly file from there.

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EMBEDDED AJAX SERVER

EMBEDDED AJAX SERVER

INTRODUCTION:

  • In the modern times as of now there exists many electronic embedded devices which has become the choice of many to live an easy accessible lifestyle.
  • They communicate necessarily over a Wi-fi connection.
  • The embedded device should comprise of

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING:

  • Its primary role is to provide its clients through using the protocol http.
  • These servers can manage any types of message protocol.

FUNCTIONING:

  • The well known protocol(Hypertext transfer protocol) comprises of two main functions:-

 

  • GET
  • POST

 

  • The GET function  is used to necessarily  download a particular resource situated at a specified location such as he URL
  • Response to a particular  GET request contains the resource, aided  by the HTTP header information
  • As soon as someone clicks on  a link in a web browser to go to a new page, they are necessarily sending a GET request.
  • The server then requests  the HTML page situated at the URL they click.
  • The POST function  is used to submit data from the web browser back to the server.
  • The particular  request will be generated when someone clicks on “Submit” button.
  • The most basic web server has no ability to process a POST request as they have no idea how to process the data within the request.
  • Reliability must be on another program/utility in order  to process the particular data.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • The embedded web applications generally should  be able to allow the web functionality influence the device operation .
  • The main idea is that the  remotely located browser must be able to communicate with the system.
  • The  web server has absolutely no defined ability
  • Therefore everything that is beyond the simple processing of HTTP have to be written as an integral part of system development.
  • low-level code that interacts directly with system hardware will mostly be written in C.
  • Since  these routines are so system-specific, they need to be written during development.

The main  challenge is that the web server has absolutely  no way of accessing these routines,

  • Therefore some vital method of connecting these two codes must be created.
  • Two necessary  high-level elements that ought to  be created are:
  • Access for the web browser in order  to invoke another program;
  • A particular  program which can process an HTTP request , thereafter from the particular request information and finally invoke the corresponding C code.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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AIRPLAY

AIRPLAY

AIRPLAY

  • It is an proprietary suite containing a transmission protocol  made by the gigantic company Apple.
  • It enables the sharing of media whether it be videos,photos, audio between two devices of the same metadata.
  • There are two types of these devices:-

 

  • The contents that are audiovisual
  • The ones able to receive the content

 

                                                              THE APPLE AIRPLAY LOGO

WORKING:

  • Both airtunes and airplay work on the network medium known as wifi.
  • These so called airplay devices were initially required to be connected to the same wifi – network.
  • However in today’s times, with the introduction of iOs 8 devices they have been equipped with much more convenient technologies.

AIRTUNES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 2 . Air tunes on Airplay

WORKING:

  • This airplay stack of protocol makes use of the user datagram protocol.(UDP).
  • The peculiar feature of this protocol is that it comprises of certain metadata that will decide the output volume(finalised) on the receiver’s end.
  • The widely popular service so calles Airport Express service makes use of streaming functions using RAOP Remote audio output protocol.
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Embedded Antenna

Introduction:

The adjacent origination have a rapport with to an embedded antenna implement for an electronic communication implement, and the embedded antenna device consist of a be composed which comprise a ground the equatorial regions and a non-ground region; an antenna radiator which is inclined in the non-ground region of said substrate, and is fed to a feeding part situate on said substrate; and a transference line which is break from said antenna radiator, and is predisposed in the locality of said ground region in sequence to have a unquestionable length and a unquestionable width, wherein the transmission line is combine with the ground region to jurisdiction reactance such that the antenna radiator can be utilize in at minimum one crave band.

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Embedded analytics

Introduction

This is  the use of announce and analytic ability in transactional business applications. These abilities can inhabit outside the application, reusing the analytic configuration built by many endeavour, but must be easily reachable from the interior the application, without coerce users to controller between systems.

on the other hand, is a position of capacity that are with very firm control desegregated into existing systems that conduct additional consciousness, context, or analytic ability to carry intention-making having all constituent parts connected to very certain chore.  These chores may need data from multiple systems or aggregated views, but the output is not centralized overview of information. It is targeted information to support a decision or action in the context in which that decision or action takes place Said some other way, business comprehension is a map that you make use of to plan your avenue before a long road stumble.  Embedded analytics is the GPS steermanship interior your car that escort your path in real time.

The fact that BI applications and business procedure applications have absolutely different a point where two systems forces users to switch between multiple applications to obtain intuition and take action. alternatively, embedded analytics gives the ability to acquire interior the request people use every day to ameliorate the analytics incident and made users more fertile by amalgamate intuition and activity in the similar application.

 

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EMBEDDED ATOM

Introduction

  • With respect to computational physics and  chemistry it is a method of approximation
  • I necessarily describes the energy between two successive atoms which is known as inter atomic potential.
  • EAM is related to the theory known as tight binding.
  • These methods are also known as Finns Sinclair model.

MODEL SIMULATION

  • Within a simulation the necessary potential energy of an atom is given by:-

EXPLANATION OF EQUATION:

  • Rij is the corresponding distance between the atoms i and j.
  • The potential function is denoted by the symbols fi(i,j).
  • The embedding function F implies the force required to implant an atom of the type alpha inside the electron cloud.

DESCRIPTION:

  • Having said that the electron cloud is essentially the summation of many atoms by a cut off radius.

NOTE:

  • Within Binary alloys the EAM energy(potential) requires 7 individual functions:-
  1. 2 electron cloud distributions
  2. 2 embedding functions
  3. 3 pair interactions(B-B,A-B,A-A)
  • Usually these functions are tabulated with the aid of tables and extended using cubic splines.

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EMBEDDED ASSEMBLY LEVEL PROGRAMMING

INTRODUCTION:

 

  • An assembly language was mainly used for mnemonics .
  • He program that converts this to machine level language is known as assembler.
  • Basically it is an aggregation of statements
  • We can categorise our custom code into different sections to make it more understandable and more legible.This is achieved by using labels

 

For E.g:- if we use the label

HERE:

———;////statement 1

———;//statement 2

 

  • It implies that a specific part of the code is defined under this label or loop.
  • If we want to loop this forever we can use the while loop.

NOTE:

  • The comment field is preceded by the semicolon whereas the labels are succeeded by a colon.

 

MAJOR STEPS INVOLVED IN ASSEMBLY LEVEL LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING:

  1. Creating
  2. Assembling
  3. Running

STEPS INVOLVED:

  • Initially we must use a basic editor such as MS-DOS (old operating system) to produce an ASCII file.
  • This  .asm source file comprises of program source code.
  • The function of the assembler now will be to .
  • It serves the programmer well because the complete list of opcodes as well as addresses will be detected.It will eventually produce an .obj file and a .lst file(optional)
  • The so called assemblers will be needing a third procedure known as linking where multiple objects are linked together to yield a file with format “abs”.
  • Finally this .abs file is converted to hex format by the aid of object to hex converter.
  • This hex file will be dumped/burned to the ROM memory of the microchip.

STEPS INVOLVED IN ASSEMBLY LEVEL LANGUAGE CODING:

An illustration of an Assembly level language code:

 

1.0000      ORG  0H      ;starting point at location 0

2 0000 7D25 MOV  R5,#35H    ;then load 35H into register R5

3.0002 7F34 MOV  R7,#44H    ;then load 44H into register R7

4.0004 7400 MOV  A,#0      ;then load value  0 into accumulator(A)

5.0006 2D   ADD  A,R5      ;then sum  contents of R5 with Accumulator

6.0007 2F   ADD  A,R7      ;then add contents of R7 with Accumulator

7.0008 2412 ADD  A,#12H     ;then add value in  Awith 12 H

8.000A 80FE HERE: SJMP HERE ;keep staying in this loop

9.000C END                     ;finally the asm file ends here

 

  • Note that each directives have a specific function to perform such as MOV mimplies the result is moved to a particular register or  the accumulator.

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Embedded alpha channel

Embedded alpha channel

Embedded alpha channel

Ordinary video clips have three channels of statistics for red, green, and blue. An alpha channel is an auxiliary channel that explain areas of lucidity in the image. If you source from abroad a QuickTime movie or a still image from another application, or a file that’s been generate by a 3D animation program, it may have an alpha channel in inclusion to its color channels. An alpha channel is a a range of grey shades from white to black, as used in a monochrome display in channel where quantity of white and black regulate changing degrees of lucidity applied to the color channels through outing compositing.

This is the example of alpha channel image.

 

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