• PIC Microcontroller was manufactured by General instrument’s Microelectronics.
  • It was initially named as Peripheral Interface Controller and was later known a Programmable intelligent computer.
  • They were ready to be used by the year of 1976 and was went on to  sell more than 10 billion units by 2014.
  • They are employed in a  wide variety of embedded systems in the modern world today and very popular amongst hobbyists and industrialists.
  • Earlier versions of PIC  unfortunately had ROM and EPROM  only.


  • PIC16F887A employs the Harvard architecture.
  • Lack of external memory interface.
  • Watchdog timer
  • Different RC oscillator configurations
  • SRAM


  1. Smaller instruction set
  2. Reduced instruction set.
  3. Inexpensive microcontrollers.
  4. Supports different protocols I2C,UART, SPI.


  • Just one accumulator.
  • Register bank switching required to access complete RAM of devices.



  • Here pins 13 and 14 of the PIC Microcontroller are connected to an RC oscillator via two capacitors each measuring 22PF.
  • The MCLR pin 1 of the microcontroller is connected to a resistance  of 10K Ohm.

C programming code:

void main()
 TRISB.F0 = 0; //Makes PORTB0 or RB0 Output Pin

 while(1) //Infinite Loop
   PORTB.F0 = 1; //LED ON// RBO pin of port b is toggled
   Delay_ms(1000); //1 Second Delay
   PORTB.F0 = 0; //LED OFF
   Delay_ms(1000); //1 Second Delay is given after each blink of led





Use of Linux in Embedded

Use of Linux in Embedded


Linux as a free software, get a great deal of development, embedded systems and Linux combination is increasingly being optimistic. Linux has its own set of tool chain, easy to create your own embedded system development environment and cross-operating environment, and embedded system development across the simulation tools obstacles. Linux kernel has a small, high efficiency, open source.

Linux device drivers can be either built into the kernel itself, or can be built as modules. When built into the kernel, the device driver is always loaded and ready to be used. If built as a module, the device driver will have to be installed before attempting to use the device. This can be done automatically using scripts, manually from the command line, or the kernel can automatically load modules as needed.


Embedded Linux is increasingly popular Linux operating system modified so that it can be cut in the embedded computer system running an embedded Linux operating system on the Internet not only inherited the unlimited resources but also has embedded the open source operating system characteristics.


Advantages of linux as an embedded system


Linux can be applied to a variety of hardware platforms. Linux uses a unified framework to manage the hardware, from one hardware platform to another hardware platform changes and the upper application-independent.

Linux can be freely configured, does not require any license or business relationship, the source code is freely available. This makes the use of Linux as the operating system does not have any copyright disputes, which will save a lot of development costs.

Linux is similar to kernel-based, with full memory access control, supports a large number of hardware and other characteristics of a common operating system. All of its open source program, anyone can modify and GUN General Public License issued under. In this way, developers can customize the operating system to meet their special needs.

Linux users are familiar with the complete development tools, almost all Unix systems applications have been ported to Linux. Linux also provides a powerful networking feature, a variety of optional window manager (X Windows).

The linux powerful language compiler GCC, C++, etc. can also be very easy to get, not only sophisticated, but easy to use.

The advantages of embedded Linux over embedded operating systems include multiple suppliers for software, development and support; no royalties or licensing fees; a stable kernel; the ability to read, modify and redistribute the source code. The disadvantages is a comparatively large memory footprint complexities of user mode and kernel mode memory access.

Now lets see in which all embedded system linex is used.


Nspire CAS CX Calculator: This is a simple calculator yet powerful. It is ia an ARM based graph calculator that is powered by Linux.

Linux has proved itself to be a more stable operating environment; its functions are stable enough that seldom does one encounter screen freezes, repeated boot-ups, etc.

The Linux OS handles different functions through the kernel in a different way compared to Windows. This creates a faster system that is even closer to UNIX (it actual parent system).

Smart Tv: Ubuntu is powering Smart Tv.


Different versions of  Linux

Blue Cat Linux at,

Hard Hat Linux at,

RT-Linux at,

ThinLinux at,

White Dwarf Linux at, and

Linux Embedded at

Embedded Abbreviation

Embedded Abbreviation


Let’s see some of the abbreviations which are used in embedded c.

We have different abbreviation for embedded  in different fields.




ET-Embedded Training

EOC-Embedded Operations Channel

E.S -Embedded Solutions

eVB – EMbedded Visual Basic

ES – Embedded System Technology

EC -Embedded Connectivity

EL-Embedded Linux Linux

EWS-Embedded Web Server
EP-Embedded Passives Capacitor

EMBD-Embedded Technology


EMBED-Embedded Drawing

EA-Embedded Address

EP -Embedded Profile


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