TWO DIMENSIONAL ARRAY

We have introduced array as if we want to save a hundred values then its difficult to declare variables, so we used array .now if we want hundred such arrays then we can have two-dimensional arrays .so an array of arrays is known as 2d array.

1.1 PROGRAM TO CHECK WHETHER THE TWO(3*3) MATRIXES ARE EQUAL OR NOT

DESCRIPTION:

First we taken the two(3*3) matrixes, afterwards we need to check that all elements inside the two matrixes are equal or not in both matrixes with respect toposition wise also, if all elements with respect to position in two matrixes are equal then prints both matrices are EQUAL otherwise prints both matrixes are not equal.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
int matrix1[3][3],matrix2[3][3],i,j,count=0;
printf(“enter the elements of first 3*3 matrix\n”);
for(i=0;i<3;i++) //rows
{
for(j=0;j<3;j++)// columns
{
scanf(“%d”,&matrix1[i][j]); //input from the user
}
}
printf(“enter the elements of second 3*3 matrix\n”);
for(i=0;i<3;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<3;j++)
{
scanf(“%d”,&matrix2[i][j]);
}
}
for(i=0;i<3;i++) //loop for checking whether two matrixes are equal or not
{
for(j=0;j<3;j++)
{
if(matrix1[i][j]!=matrix2[i][j])
{

count++;// increment the count value if the elements are not

equal
}
}
}
if(count==0)
printf(“2 matrixes are equal\n”);
else
printf(“2 matrixes are not equal\n”);
}

1.2 TO PERFORM SCALAR MULTIPLICATON OF(3*3) MATRIX

Description:

Here we can multiply any constant element with the 3*3 matrix(or any other matrix).first user ask the input for matrix along with the constant variable.
#include<stdio.h>//preprocessor directive with header file
int main()
{
int matrix[10][10],i,j,n,constant,row,col,matrix1[10][10];
printf(“enter the number of rows of the array elements\n”);
scanf(“%d”,&row);
printf(“enter the number of columns of the array elements\n”);
scanf(“%d”,&col);
printf(“enter the matrix elements\n”);
for(i=0;i<row;i++)
//for row elements
{
for(j=0;j<col;j++)
//for column elements
{
scanf(“%d”,&matrix[i][j]);
}
}
printf(“enter the constant element to multiplied with the matrix\n”);
scanf(“%d”,&constant);
for(i=0;i<row;i++)
//loop for multiplying a constant with the given matrix
{
for(j=0;j<col;j++)
{
matrix1[i][j]=constant*matrix[i][j];
}
}

printf(“the new matrix is\n”);

for(i=0;i<row;i++)
//loop for printing the multiplied matrix
{
for(j=0;j<col;j++)
{
printf(” %d”,matrix1[i][j]);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
}//end of main function

1.3 TO FIND THE SUM OF EACH ROW AND COLUMN OF A 3*3 MATRIX

DESCRIPTION:

First we have to take(3*3) matrix,then we need to find the sum of each elements of the row1,afterwards sum of each elements of row2 and then row3, similar method is needed to find the sum of each elements of columns also.afterwards print all the sums individually.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
int matrix[3][3],i,j,sum,row=0,sum1;
printf(“enter the elements of the matrix(3*3)\n”);
for(i=0;i<3;i++)// scanning for rows
{
for(j=0;j<3;j++)// scanning for columns
{
scanf(“%d”,&matrix[i][j]);
}
}
for(i=0;i<3;i++)//loop for finding the sum of each rows and columns
{
sum=0;
sum1=0;
for(j=0;j<3;j++)
{
sum=sum+matrix[i][j];//sum is sum of each rows
sum1=sum1+matrix[j][i];//sum1 is sum of each columns
}
printf(“sum of row%d=%d\n”,row,sum);//printing sum of each rows value
printf(“sum of column%d=%d\n”,row,sum1);//printing sum of each
column value
row++;

}

}

1.4 MULTIPLICATION OF TWO 3*3 MATRIX

DESCRIPTION:

First we take the two 3*3 matrixes(or any), afterwards we need to check the rows of the first matrix is equal to the columns of the second matrix, if it is satisified then only you to process for further steps otherwise print no multiplication is possible,if it is satisified then only multiply 2 matrix.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
int matrix1[3][3],matrix2[3][3],matrix3[3][3],row1,col1,row2,col2,i,j,k,mul;
printf(“enter the number of rows of the first matrix\n”);
scanf(“%d”,&row1);
printf(“enter the columns of the first matrix\n”);
scanf(“%d”,&col1);
printf(“enter the elements of the first matrix\n”);
for(i=0;i<row1;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<col1;j++)
{
scanf(“%d”,&matrix1[i][j]);
}
}
printf(“enter the number of rows of second matrix\n”);
scanf(“%d”,&row2);
printf(“enter the number of columns of second matrix\n”);
scanf(“%d”,&col2);
if(row1!=col2) //if rows of the 1st matrix not equal to second matrix exit program
otherwise continue
printf(“multiplication not possible\n”);
else
{
printf(“enter the elements of the second matrix\n”);
for(i=0;i<row2;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<col2;j++)
{
scanf(“%d”,&matrix2[i][j]);
}

}

printf(“multiplication of two matrix is\n”);
for(i=0;i<row1;i++) // matrix multiplication takes place
{
for(j=0;j<col2;j++)
{
mul=0;
for(k=0;k<col1;k++)
{
mul=mul+matrix1[i][k]*matrix2[k][j];
}
printf(” %d”,mul);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
}
}

1.5 PROGRAM TO STORE 10 NAME INTO 2D ARRAY AND PRINT THEM

DESCRIPTION:

We declare a 2 dimensional character array of required size,afterwards we need to store names, and print them.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
char names[20][20];
int row,col,i,j;
printf(“enter the rows and columns of the 2d array\n”);
scanf(“%d %d”,&row,&col);
printf(“enter the names you want to print\n”);
for(i=0;i<row;i++)
{
scanf(“%s”,&names[i][0]);//user input to store names
}
for(i=0;i<row;i++)
{
printf(“%s\n”,&names[i][0]);//printing the names
}
}

1.6 PROGRAM TO SWAP THE TWO ARRAYS

DESCRIPTION:

To swap two strings in c programming we want to ask user to enter two strings and then make a temporory variable of same type and then place elements of string 1 in temp and and elements of string 2 in 1 and then temp in string 2.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
char array1[10],array2[10],temp[10]=”\0″;
int len1=0,len2=0,i,j;
printf(“enter the elements of the first array\n”);
scanf(“%s”,array1);
printf(“enter the elements of the second array\n”);
scanf(“%s”,array2);
while(array1[len1]!=’\0′)//loop for calculating the length of the first array
{
len1++;
}
printf(“the length of the first array is %d\n”,len1);
while(array2[len2]!=’\0′)//loop for calacuating the length of the second array
{
len2++;
}
printf(“the length of the second array is %d\n”,len2);
for(i=0;i<len1;i++)//using temporary variable we swap the 2 given arrays and
print after the swapping process
{
temp[i]=array1[i];
}
for(i=0;i<len2;i++)
{
array1[i]=array2[i];
}
for(i=0;i<len1;i++)
{
array2[i]=temp[i];
}
for(i=0;i<len2;i++)
{
printf(“%c”,array1[i]);
}
printf(“\n”);
for(j=0;j<len1;j++)
{
printf(“%c”,array2[j]);
}
}

1.7 PROGRAM TO CHECK WHETHER THE GIVEN STRING IS PALINDROME OR NOT

DESCRIPTION:

A string is palindrome if the reverse of that string is equal to original string.firstly we need to declare a character array of some size, after we need to obtain input string from the user, and take another array and copy the reversing order of first string and comapare the both strings if it is equal print as the given string is palindrome else print the given string is not an palindrome.
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
int main()
{
char str[10],rev[10]=”\0″;
int length=0,i,j;
printf(“enter the string\n”);
scanf(“%s”,str);
while(str[length]!=’\0′)//while loop to find the length of the string till the element become
{
length++;
}
printf(“length of the string is=%d\n”,length);
for(i=length-1,j=0;i>=0,j<length;i–,j++)/*for loop for reversing a original string and store it in
another character
array*/
{
rev[i]=str[j];
}
for(i=0;i<length;i++)//comparing original string with the reversing string
{
if(rev[i]==str[i])
j=1;
else
j=0;
}
if(j==1)
printf(“palindrome\n”);
else
printf(“not an palindrome\n”);
}

1.8 PROGRAM TO INTERCHANGING THE DIGONALS OF MATRIX

DESCRIPTION:

Firstly we take the matrix (only square matrix),afterwards we need to interchange the left diagonal elements towards right and viceversa and print the result of interchanging the diagonal elements.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a[10][10],row,column,i,j,temp;
printf(“enter the number of rows and columns of the matrix\n”);
scanf(“%d %d”,&row,&column);
printf(“enter the elements of the matrix\n”);
for(i=0;i<row;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<column;j++)
{
scanf(“%d”,&a[i][j]);
}
}
for(i=0;i<row;i++)
{
temp=a[i][i];
a[i][i]=a[i][row-i-1];
a[i][row-i-1]=temp;
}
for(i=0;i<row;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<column;j++)
{
printf(” %d”,a[i][j]);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
}

1.9 WRITE A PROGRAM TO PRINT UPPER TRIANGULAR MATRIX

DESCRIPTION:

we have to take one square matrix and print the upper triangular matrix only remaining the term should be zero or empty.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
int matrix[3][3],row,column;
printf(“enter the (3*3) matrix elements\n”);
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
{
for(column=0;column<3;column++)
{
scanf(“%d”,&matrix[row][column]);
}
}
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
{
for(column=0;column<3;column++)
{
if(column>=row)
{
matrix[row][column]=matrix[row][column];//assign the elements as it is if column is
greater or equal,else it is 0
}
else
{
matrix[row][column]=0;
}
}
}
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
{
for(column=0;column<3;column++)
{
printf(” %d”,matrix[row][column]);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
}

1.1 PROGRAM TO READ 10 NAMES INTO 2D ARRAY AND SORT THEM BASED ON THE FIRST ELEMENT IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER

DESCRIPTION:

Firstly we can take some of names from the user input and then we have to compare first letter of each names and then use swapping technique if one letter greater than other,after completing the sorting technique, we will get strings of names in alphabetical order.
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
int main()
{
char names[10][10],temp;
int i,j,k;
printf(“enter the names(10):\n”);
for(i=0;i<10;i++)
{
scanf(“%s”,&names[i][0]);
}
for(k=0;k<10;k++)//loop for swapping until all the elements will be sorting in alphabetical order
{
for(i=0;i<10-1;i++)//swapping all the elements in the array only one time
{
if(names[i][0]>names[i+1][0])/*comparing the first letters of the names and if
greater swap else don’t swap*/
{
for(j=0;j<10;j++)
{
temp=names[i][j];
names[i][j]=names[i+1][j];//swapping
names[i+1][j]=temp;
}
}
}
}
printf(“\n”);
printf(“string name in alphabetical order\n”);//after the swapping technique print the sorted
names
for(i=0;i<10;i++)
{
printf(“%s\n”,&names[i][0]);
}
}

What Programming Language is Used for Embedded Systems?

programming language is used for embedded systems - PTInstitute

Embedded system is a combination of both hardware and software. Embedded system is growing very fast. To program any embedded device mainly c programming is used.
To work in the embedded field, c programming is enough to manage all embedded devices. C programming is high-level programming, which is used to control the device. All the controllers like microcontroller 8051, 8052, PIC controller, STM32 all can be programmed by c programming.
We can use different programming languages for an embedded system like assembly language, some scripting languages Perl, and python. Try PTInstitute for embedded courses in Bangalore.
The B programming language was created to complete these tasks with a very less number of lines code, but it did not have data types or structures. C was then created which implemented features missing in B. C then became the standard the programming language in the UNIX systems.
C was created in the early 70s by Dennis Ritchie as a high-level programming language in UNIX operating systems. At that time, the Assembly language was mainly used, assembly language required many lines of code to accomplish a simple task. If you are good at c programming you can learn any programming language easily. C programming involves functions, arrays, pointer, and data structure. Most of the embedded system devices are developed using the c programming language. If you are looking for c programming teaching institutes. you can search for best embedded system training institute in Google.
Hardware Description Languages are used a lot in FPGAs and parallel programming applications. They are quite different from many other types of languages in that they are frequently used based on hardware, hence “hardware description”.
Verilog was invented in the early 80s as one of the first HDLs, used primarily in the modeling of electronic systems. The language name is a shortened version of “Verification of LOGIC”. The program is based on a hierarchy of modules to be able to describe a system. Verilog may be easier to learn if you already have experience with programming in C.
Verilog was invented in the early 80s as one of the first HDLs, used primarily in the modeling of electronic systems. The language name is a shortened version of “Verification of LOGIC”. The program is based on a hierarchy of modules to be able to describe a system. Verilog may be easier to learn if you already have experience with programming in C.

Ada Programming Language

Ada is statically typed, essential, and structured programming language, Ada is a mainly extended from Pascal it’s a high-level object-oriented computer programming language. Ada is mainly targeted at real-time systems and embedded systems. Some important features of Ada programming language are we can check the code during the run time and we can do parallel processing, it includes generics, exception handling and dynamic dispatch.
Ada is mainly designed for the development of very large software systems. Packages of Ada can be compiled individually. Ada package specifications can also be compiled individually without the implementation to check for reliability. This help to detect problems early mainly during the design phase, as before implementation starts.

Python Programming Language:

Python is high level, the interpreted general-purpose programming language it is developed by Guido van Rossum first it was released in 1991.
Python is garbage collected and dynamically typed language. Python supports multi programming paradigms including object-oriented, procedural and functional programming as well. You can search for well-embedded training institutes in Bangalore.
Python is frequently described as batteries included language because of its comprehensive standard library files.
Python programming language is used in an embedded system as well, to design an embedded system like in IoT python programming is used.
We at Professional Training Institute give practical oriented training on the embedded system, c programming language, python.

Best Courses for Electronics and Communication Engineering Students

Best embedded systems Courses for Electronics and Communication Engineering Students

Best Courses for Electronics and Communication Engineering Students

There are so many different courses are available, you can go for any courses after completion of your engineering in Electronics and communication. It entirely depends on your area of interest and wishes you had during your degree and which work profile you want for yourself.

1. Embedded Systems Design:

Embedded system is a combination of hardware and software. You can choose an embedded system course if you are interested in embedded programming and thinking of perusing a career in this field. Choosing an embedded system course is a very good choice as it is a good job the area which merges the electrical engineering and computer science. Embedded course presently having a very high scope as embedded industry especially in it and raspberry pi is growing very fast. Doing a course is worth when you do it in well-embedded training institutes in Bangalore. You can search for best-embedded training institutes in Bangalore. You get the list of good institutes. You should be good at logical skills and You must have good knowledge. This is one of the most trending courses presently because Embedded has a wide range of opportunities in IoT, Raspberry Pi.

2. CCNA/CCNP:

It is one of those courses which are chosen by students. It is a CISCO certified networking administrator course. The next level up gradation is CCNP. This course costs relevantly lower than other courses but the certification is mandatory for some companies.

3. Embedded Linux:

Embedded Linux is the best course to do, the Most of web servers and servers that provide services run the Linux. When you learn Linux, you will be able to recognize the way many of the servers you communicate with users. When you are trained at Professional Training Institute you will have an improved chance of finding a job as many companies require people with knowledge about Linux to control their servers. Most of the web servers run Linux. When you learn how to use the Linux you will have a good chance at becoming a web admin.

The people who are working under Linux are getting good and attractive salary package. Now a day’s, embedded systems are becoming more and more persistent, touching virtually all the aspects of our daily life. so, if you are very interested to make an embedded system as your career then Embedded systems training will be the right choice for you.

4. Embedded Hardware:

As we know the embedded system is a combination of hardware and software, it includes both hardware and software. So if you are interested in the hardware part, you can go for doing embedded hardware course. Hardware part includes the designing of PCB, circuit design and hardware testing and troubleshooting. Embedded hardware domain also so many jobs are available.

5. Embedded Testing:

Embedded testing involves both hardware testing and software testing, testing the embedded units like doing functional testing, PCB testing, generating the test cases and checking each of the test cases.

6. C Programming:

C programming is high programming language developed in the early 70s by Dennis Ritchie. C language is mostly used programming language; if you are good at c-programming you can learn any other language so easily. It is the base for all programming languages. So doing the c programming course is very worth. C programming language involves data structure, array, and pointers. Learning c programming help you in embedded system field, software development side. An Embedded Systems Expert will have to work on a modern processor, network, and sensor architecture along with their main work is to focus on analyzing and optimizing various embedded hardware design and software architectural programmer in an embedded system environment.

7. PLC and SCADA:

This course focuses mainly on the field of automation engineering. You can work in this field for development/maintenance or in industries. This field won’t restrict you to the electronics field only. In automation, you can also have a chance of working in mechanical industries also.

8. VLSI:

VLSI includes a great technology adds with the data which includes the deep understanding and good development of integrated circuits and it loads the data. And the least talked or joined course was is the VLSI course. As because this is the most costly among the core ECE courses but the future of VLSI is emerging and not a dead end profile to have right now i.e spending that much of money is worth if you want to work in this field. The above courses are the best options for you if you want to work in the field you studied for 4 years of the degree. So as an electrical engineer with your area of interest, you can do any of the above courses. You can join for good embedded systems training in Bangalore

 

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering -ptinstitute

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering

Hello, Friend electronics and communication engineering are one of the evergreen branches of Engineering. A student who passes out from engineering does not have enough knowledge in the core field. If you want to do the job in the core field, the best ways to gain knowledge in embedded system to gain the knowledge you can join embedded system training in Bangalore.
If you are an Electronics and communication engineer (ECE/EE/EEE), then feel yourself as very lucky. You are having a tremendous opportunity for jobs. The main advantage of ECE branch is you can work in Core filed like embedded system, Embedded developer in R&D, Embedded tester, Embedded Device repairing, Embedded project development, Embedded C programmer, Telecom filed Networking. You can also work in technical marketing filed like embedded product marketing like UPS, consumer electronics products, Displays, video walls, projectors, IOT wearables, etc.
You may not be aware of which filed you can work. There are many fields in which you can work. So here we will discuss as many filed possible, but I want to say that there are many more filed is still possible you can get a job. This post is mainly cover where all ECE student can get a job. We will also cover in deeply all the pros and cons of those fields. So let’s start your journey called a career.

Embedded System Engineer:

The embedded systems engineer is the most promising job field in the current job field and in future also. For this job profile, the candidate should be good in programming and hardware side too. Candidate should be flexible in writing programs in C programming language, which most widely used in this field and by the knowledge or expertise in this programming language the candidate can work with any other languages which are used in this fields. The hardware side also should be good enough for the candidate. An embedded systems engineer develops the programs with respect to its hardware components. So the candidate must know how to read and understand the data sheets of required components and to develop.

For the best start in this field, it is better you join embedded training. With the course in the embedded system, you can full knowledge of the subject, it will help you get in the job. For training, you can choose Best embedded systems training in Bangalore.

Embedded C Developer /Firmware Engineer:

Another job field for the electronics and communication engineers can choose is embedded c Developer or firmware engineer. Where they will develop source codes for the requirement. For this profile, the candidate should be good in programming languages especially c language. Training programs towards embedded c development are available in the industry. Where the candidate will get the training in c language and will be able to develop the program for microcontrollers or microprocessors.
Students who are not that much interested in the hardware side can go with software development section in the embedded field. There are a lot of embedded systems training institutes are available in Bangalore and other cities in India. You can choose the top embedded training institute in Bangalore.

Linux Internal and Linux Device Driver

Nowadays there is much more application of the Linux operating system. Many companies are started using Linux as an operating system for their product. Being knowledge in Linux Internal and Linux Device driver it will defiantly be going to help in your career.
If you don’t know what is Linux Device Driver then, Hardware device functionality we can control through a program is called device driver. The career growth in this field is very high because in embedded field and in any other electronics or computer science filed we make use this field. What is the importance of making device drivers in Linux platform? Since most of the kernel is working in Linux because of its bug-free nature. So to get a job in this competitive field is get well trained from good institutes to sharpen your skills.
Salary in this field is very high. There are a lot of training institutes are available in this field to give the training. You can join the embedded course in Bangalore and find out embedded course cost if it matters you most, but the salary in this much-much higher than the training cost.

Embedded Hardware Engineer

Embedded hardware engineer designs and performs on the tiny chips what we called microcontrollers or microprocessors. They are not only working on the chips they will work on the required things which can help the chips to work as a system. They will design the hardware board required for the product and so on. Persons who are interested in the hardware or who is not that much keen about software jobs can choose this field. For this field no training institute available. In this filed normally companies higher fresher then give training according to company need. If you still want to join some course to start your career as hardware engineer then you can join embedded system Bangalore.

Embedded Tester:

This field also same as software testing. Embedded software testing is the testing of embedded systems. Embedded software is tested for their performance, consistency, quality and it will get validated as per the requirements of the client.
For the testing field job, the candidate should be aware of Automotive Embedded, Black Box Testing, System Testing, Test Engineer, Unit testing, White Box Testing, and HIL Testing. Knowledge in these fields can easily achieve through a training program.

PLC/SCADA Programming:

Programmable Logic Controller or PLC is a computing system these are used to control electromechanical processes. SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. It is also another type of industrial control system which is used to monitor and control facilities and infrastructure in big industries.

Students can take a training program in this field and can show their skills in this field of programming. This field is mostly working towards instrumentation field. So students who are more interested in electronics and instrumentation can choose this field. But the jobs in this filed is limited and now a day embedded the system is taking over the jobs related to PLC SCADA.

Due to limited jobs and shrinking, the filed salary in this field is very low as compared to the embedded system. Moreover, the engineer working in this filed does not work in the development, the main job is to do the configuration of the PLC device.

Telecom Installer:

This field of job requires some physical work from the employee. It involves the installation and repairs of the telecommunication devices. There are few training institutes which provide knowledge in this filed. Becoming a telecom installer is also another option for ECE job seekers. But the comparison with other above-mentioned jobs it will give less average salary and opportunity to learn new things. Due to telecom completion, this file is now a day having low demands.

RF Engineer:

Radiofrequency engineer is one of the core field jobs. The detailed training program in this field is not much popular duration can be 4-5 days only. Candidate should know about RF planning, cellular networks such as GSM, CDMA, UMTS.HSPA+, LTE, LTE-Advanced, LTE-Advanced Pro, 5G, mmWave, Radar, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth/BLE/BT5.0, Zigbee, Satellite Communications, VSAT, two-way radio, Public Safety, testing, and simulation.

They also have to work on wireless systems also. Lack of skilled persons making this field more demand. In this field, jobs are less but the salary is very high. If you want to do jobs in this field then you need to direly apply to the company which is working in the field of telecom.

Networking Admin

Every company must have computers/Laptops when man computers are coming together and using the internet then we need some methods through which they can connect together.
Not only computer connectivity there are many more things that network engineer do like server maintenance, data security, VOIP connectivity, etc. Network administration is a job highly demands job in the industry. Because they will install, support and manage all the computers and networks in the companies which will ensure the flow of data or work is going without fail.
There are a lot of training programs and certification courses are available in this field to get the job. But there are a lot of trained peoples there in the field so the perks of the job are getting reduced. Each and every company need a network engineer. So trained resource candidate in this is having a very good career opportunity.
You can easily open your own company in this field, and earn huge money.

Technical Marketing:

Technical persons with good communication skills and the ability to impress people with their new product can have a bright future in this field. To become a technical marketing person the candidate should at least have good communication and thorough knowledge in the respective field. There is no specified training program in this field. But then also we can get some training on the marketing side.
If the candidate doesn’t have that much passion towards development area they choose this field as it is easy to get comparatively other development jobs in the core fields.

Equipment Installation and Maintenance Engineer:

Equipment installation and maintenance won’t demand that much from the technical side. The candidate should be aware of the company products and mainly how to install those. This field also doesn’t have any proper training program from outside. Because it mainly depends on the company products and it will change from company to company. Other benefits in this field comparatively lesser than developments. If the candidate wants to change his field to develop it will become a little hard for them.

Technical Contains Writer:

It’s a huge demanding field as every product development companies once they develop the products they need technical content writers to describe their products, it’s usage, maintenance, etc. (for product manual). This field requires good writing skills and knowledge in the products. We can’t take any training program in this field but then also we do to improve the writing skills in the required language.

Engineering College Faculty:

This a good choice for the people who are more interested in teaching. Who has good teaching sense? We can’t give any training to this field as it is somebody’s skill to make students get understand. Candidate should have a thorough knowledge of the subject for this profile. But the salary in this filed is limited.

Non-Core Jobs:

Software testing, Java developer, Big Data/Hadoop/AWS:

Though these jobs are technical these do not core jobs to ECE field. These jobs easily available in the market and number of training programs also available. Though these are easily available the benefits and growth in this field are less because in this field the number of students is getting trained in each year because of less training fee, a number of institutes, etc.

Non-Technical jobs Like BPO, Tele-caller:

Training is on the job only, no institutes are giving training for these. But people can take training in for their language improvement. These jobs will have a pretty good salary in the beginning but once the employee gets experienced then the higher posts will be highly filtered because this field is huge in a number of employees. So the increment in the salary or other benefits will become saturated once they got experienced. The ratio of growth will get slow compared to other development jobs.

Summary:

There is a huge opportunity is available for ECE student, but the most promising field is embedded system development. There are many embedded system ideas which are yet to come out from your mind, once you have a clear idea about the product then you can start making them. Embedded system training cost is much lesser than any other training in the core filed. Once you do training then you can easily get a job in embedded filed.
The advantage of working in core filed is no other branch can come and replace you in the future. In all other filed it will be very easy to replace you, so in the future, you will get less salary. In core embedded filed nobody can replace easily. Choosing a profession after ECE is difficult. Then we should think about our passion or interest in each field. Once you determined to operate in one field try to get good training in the same. It will help you in the future to secure a good position.

 

 

Best Embedded System Projects Ideas for Final Year Students

embedded system projects ideas - PTInstitute

Best Embedded System Projects Ideas for Final Year Students

Embedded system is a look like a computer system, it is the combination of both hardware, and software, it is normally designed to perform the several operations like data accessing, processing that data and data storing in the real-time applications. Embedded system is fastest growing in day-to-day life and also increasing the institutes for embedded training, there are a number of embedded systems training institutes, who are giving training for embedded systems. Embedded systems projects are possibly the group of projects, particularly with regarding the electronics & electrical students. For completing the whole embedded project, we need to study about the Embedded System course and we are the Professional Training Institute, we will train the students to be good in the embedded systems, we will teach to the students how to develop a project and what we need learn when you are doing a project. While choosing any embedded system course we need to join in the best-embedded system training institute. Here, you will find the top embedded training institutes in Bangalore as well. Nowadays, there are many ways to build our carrier. But when it comes to ECE/EEE/EE student then we are having very fewer options. Students are having a few top Technologies for doing projects are on VLSI/SCADA-PLC/ and Embedded system. If you are interested to do projects, then one of the best and core field is an embedded system. I will discuss with you how to build a project on Embedded System, if we have done more projects on embedded systems then we will have a successful career in the embedded system.

Embedded systems are found in simple devices like television remote controls, calculators & microwave and also in more complicated devices like medical, home security, traffic control systems and military etc.., nowadays many engineering students are interested to do simple embedded projects to build their carrier on jobs in the embedded systems and improving the practical knowledge. We can use 8051 Microcontroller, PIC, Arduino, and Raspberry Pi controllers to build embedded projects. For doing any embedded project we need to aware of embedded courses. Here, we are giving some list of embedded systems.

1. Vehicle Tracking By GPS – GSM
2. Automatic Bell System for Institutions
3. Cell Phone Controlled Robotic Vehicle.
4. Fire Fighting Robotic Vehicle.
5. IR Controlled Robotic Vehicle.
6. Design and Implementation of a Metal Detector Robotic Vehicle.
7. RFID Based Device Control and Authentication Using PIC Microcontroller.
8. Temperature Controlled Fan Projects.
9. Design of Embedded Security Door Lock System
10. Communication between two PC using ZigBee.

The above are some of the embedded projects and firmware developers need to have good knowledge about hardware development and understand the internal workings of an embedded processor. Embedded Software Development generally involves below steps:
1 Development of product based on our requirement
2 Coding
3 Hardware Development
4 Testing.

embedded system project ideas - PTInstitute

1. Development of Product based on our Requirement:

We need to choose a project, which we are going to design, and we need to add some more features if we are doing an existing project. We need to gather all the required components and an overview idea of the project and we need to select a particular controller which will help for easy designing. We need to gather all the components and study of each component how they are working and how we need to interface with the controller. Then make an algorithm for the project which we need to design, then analyze how it needs to implement to the hardware section.

2. Coding:

Coding is the main part of the Embedded Projects because all controllers will work with the machine language only. Here, the controller will work and interface with all the peripherals based on the code we have written. In our life, we know only C language, till now we don’t have any other requirement to learn other languages. C is the main programming language for the embedded system. Mainly C language is working more closely hardware. it is most widely used programming in the world. While you are sitting in an interview, you should have complete knowledge of C language. In any embedded system, interview 90% questions will come from C language. you should have control over C language. In Interview, the company is expecting a very deep understanding of C, normally they ask higher end of C language like a function pointer, structure, union, pointer, the array of structure pointer etc. In order to achieve control over the interview, you should go complete understanding of C language.
When you want to do a project, you have to design an embedded product and you need to use C language. We need to know Advance knowledge in C language. We need to write a code for our embedded project we have to write code by interfacing all the peripherals and making the controller to be work as per our requirement. As a deeper understanding, you will have to learn a C language that much good code you can write. We are a Professional Training Institute in Bangalore, we give training in C completely hands on, it will make our student knowledge stronger than any experienced student.

3. Hardware Development:

While designing a Hardware, we need to know all the hardware components, which we are used in the embedded projects. Normally component used in Embedded is Resistance, capacitor, inductance, diode, transistor we should be aware of these components, how to use them, limitation etc. We may also need to have knowledge of ICs like RTC DS1307, EEPROM – 24c04, ADC 0804, RS232, ULN2003 etc we should know what all types of ICs are available and where we can use them. When we know how the hardware components will work and how to interface with other components then we can easily complete the projects with less help with others. First, we need to draw a schematic for that project then we can do a simulation on the system, for example, we can do the simulation on Proteus and we can check the output of our requirement. If our schematic circuit is correct then we can make that as PCB design by proper placing the components and make sure about the Soldering, after soldering each component check that whether it happens any shorted. Then finally dump the code into the controller and check the output.

4. Testing:

When we complete the project by making Hardware interfacing and code writing then we need to check that the complete project working as per our requirement. First, we need to dump the code to the controller then we need to check the output. If we are getting then our process is completed and we submit the project if output did not come then we need to check where the errors getting and we need to debug that errors. Like first we need to check for every component getting a power supply as per our requirement then we need to check at each component whether each component has desired input and output and whether it is working or not if there any problem try to replace with another component. Check all the connection, wiring connection and check whether any short circuit happens. Like this, we need to debug the whole network and analyze the errors than correct it. After the testing completed it is necessary to make documentation also. When you start designing the project then you need to make a design document. When any customer buys our product he needs to know about how it will work and he requires manual, to operate that product. When you have completed your project and you need to submit a project for review and release, that time you need to have all the document completed.

For doing this Embedded Projects, we need to join in the topmost Embedded Training Institute and we need to check whether they can provide good training or not. Our embedded system training in Bangalore has good knowledge on embedded systems and can take of each student in a batch so if you want to grow your carrier at a peak level then immediately join in our institute or you can top most embedded institutes.

 

 

10 Tips to Accelerate Your Engineering Career in Embedded System

10 Tips to Accelerate Your Engineering Career in embedded system_

10 Tips to Accelerate Your Engineering Career in Embedded System

Now a days, there are many ways to build our carrier. But when it comes to ECE/EEE/EE/ student then we are having very less options. For Us we are having few top choises are VLSI/SCADA-PLC/ and Embedded system. Here VLSI is having very limited scope in India, while SCADA is not in much trand now a day, while are having one of the best and core field is Embedded system. I will discuss with you how to build your successful career in Embedded system. Before I move on I will introduce my self so that you can relies on the information which I am providing here.
I am Yogesh Kumar Sharma from founder of Professional Training Institute, having 15+ years of industrial experience in embedded development. Okay so let’s start your journey in the embedded world.
As of my past experience I will explain the 10 most important tips to accelerate your engineering career in embedded systems.

1. Practical Working Knowledge in Embedded Devices:

If we wanna to make our career in embedded system then first we need to know about all the embedded devices used in the projects development. Every companies will use different types of controllers based on project. So, we need to have some knowledge on different controllers because if we are working in any company they will give project and the requirements only and there is your job to make that complete project and you need to study which controller is suitable to that requirement. If we want to design any project we need a knowledge on embedded devices which we are using for our requirements. So, firstly, we need to learn the embedded components, the controllers, the protocols, tools, programming language etc,. you should gain some practical knowledge in embedded system, you should do some hands on experiment with the latest technologies to make them use correctly. Here in Embedded Training Institute in Bangalorewe give directly projects to the students and they gains hands on knowledge on embedded system from us.

2. Embedded Development Life Cycle:

By knowing the Embedded development life cycle will helps a lot in your career. you can only make the project by own without anyone help. Normally process is depends upon individual company but normally we follow SDLC with some changes. For complete embedded development cycle involves different steps.
First, the market team will give a requirement for their application and based on their application R&D engineer need to analyze the project for feasibility of project, technology required, past experience within organization etc.
Following are the steps normally followed in organization
a) Requirement
b) Feasibility
c) specification
d) Design
e) Implementation
f) Testing and validation

Then R&D team will start the design and implementation.
The above steps are part of SDLC – software development life cycle. After implementation complete product testing is started. once you should know the above steps.

3. Command Over C Language is Very Important:

In my life i know only C language, till now i don’t have any other requirement to learn other language. C is the programming language for embedded system. Mainly C language is working more closely hardware. it is most widely used programming in the world. While you are setting in any interview you should have complete knowledge of C language. In any embedded system interview 90% questions will come from C language. you should have control over C language. In Interview company is expecting very deep understanding of C, normally they ask higher end of C language like, function pointer, structure, union, pointer, array of structure pointer etc. In order to achieve control over interview you should go complete understanding of C language.
When you work in company, you have to design an embedded product and you need to use C language. We need to know Advance knowledge in C language. As deeper understanding you will have in C language that much good code you can write. We are the professional training institute in Bangalore, we give training in C completely hands on, it will make our student knowledge more stronger than any experience student.

4. Understanding of Hardware Component, Their Use and Datasheet Reading Skills:

As an Embedded Engineer, we need to know all the hardware components which we are used in the Embedded projects. Normally component used in Embedded is Resistance, capacitor, inductance, diode, transistor we should be aware of these components, how to use them, limitation etc. We may also need have knowledge of ICs like RTC DS1307, EEPROM – 24c04, ADC 0804, RS232, ULN2003 etc we should know what all types of ics are available and where we can use them. Although many types are ICs are available in the marketing, but we should be aware of all main ICs. When we know that how the hardware components will work and how to interface with other components then we can easily complete the projects with less help with others.
During training our student do lot of experiments with the above ic and gets hands on understanding of that. during experiment student read data sheet and use the information mentioned in that. you also must know what all are the important parameter we need to check in data sheet.

5) Debugging skills of software – Embedded firmware.

If your writing code for running hardware then if you are lucky then your code will work as it is. but in most of the case, I won’t. Firmware won’t work as it is, And if firmware not working then we have to make it work. We have to find out what is the mistake we did, for that we need debugging skills. But the difficult part is how to learn to debug, here in the Professional Training Institute we ensure that during training student face enough problems so that he/she can develop debugging skills. However, when we got an error we need to go through the ocean and solve the problem faced. We need a lot of analytical skills to overcome the possible cause of the error, to narrow down the scope of error. Still, there is a possibility that some error will solve in 10 min, some error will solve in a few days, but some may take months or years. But it will surely be having a root cause. Sometimes, we are written the firmware code correctly but we are getting errors because of there is a malfunction in the hardware circuit(we don’t know that), so with how many times if you check also you won’t found the answer for that error. Because of these, we need to have good debugging skills while working on Embedded products.

6) Unit testing, Component Testing, System Testing skills:

This is the one more skill to need to establish the embedded systems developer, it is used for testing the complete hardware products. when we make firmware we need to check that it is working or not, this is called unit testing. In unit testing, we ensure whatever functionality we had developed that has to be working correctly. if we found any bug then we need to correct them. once unit testing is done then we give our component for testing, this testing may be done by some other team.
We are having another level of testing that is called component testing- in the component testing, we ensure the individual component is working correctly. This individual component can include hardware, software. To test components we may need to give some dummy input for testing. Once the independent component is working correctly then we can go for integration testing. In this, we check full system functionality. If we found some issue then we have solved them at individual level.

7) Hardware Debugging is a Requirement While Working:

when you are working on any project many times system is not working, you have to debug and diagnose the problem. To debugging an embedded device we must know the art of debugging hardware. As an embedded engineer we should know where is the problem located, why device not working. For firmware, we are having a debugger, but hardware we are not having the debugger. we need to check signal one by one and find the problem.
You should have hands-on knowledge of the tool used to debug hardware like logic analyzer, CRO, multimeter etc. When are testing an embedded hardware part for an errors first we need to check individually and then the whole system.
The following point may help in hardware debugging
• We need to check first all the equipment are working or not individually.
• Next, we need to check the input requirements to all the devices.
• Next, we need to analyze the errors occurs and we need to check is there any short circuit or not.
• If there is an error occurs when we need to rearrange that product without any of errors.

So, we need to aware of hardware debugging also. We are professional training institutes in Bangalore and we will focus on the student’s knowledge and we will train you on Hardware debugging also. We will teach you how to build a hardware part in the project and how to rectify if any error occurs on the hardware part.

8) Component Review – Firmware Review Skills:

If we are doing any projects and we need to make that project should be run exactly. While creating any firmware code that must meet all requirements. But in many times development is done by the junior member of the team, and he may have a full understanding of the system. so there is a possibility that he may make some mistake which is working currently but later it may give some problem or may in component level it is working bust system level it will not work. This point needs to check and must be review by a senior member of the team. To check the code for its functionality is called code review. normally it is done by a senior member in the team. But you should also have the same skills so that while writing code itself you come to know what mistake is possible and you can make correct firmware

9) Master the Tools of the Trade:

When you’re doing any project on Embedded System we need to know compulsory on tools which will use to work on projects that make to accelerate a career is to master the tools of the trade. The tools which will be used to work on the Embedded projects are Keil, Proteus, Flash Magic, Mp Lab, MATLAB, Kicad, Altium Designer, Eagle, OrCad, STM32 CubeMax, Arduino, Rasbian etc., By using these tools based on controllers like Arduino is used to write firmware in Arduino and Node Mcu ESP8266 etc,. Keil is used to writing a C code or Assembly code and for compilation process. Proteus is used for a schematic of the hardware section and checking the code as well as hardware project is working or not. Flash Magic is used to dump the code into a microcontroller(8051MC, LPC21XX, etc) and Kicad, Altium Designer, Eagle, OrCad are used for Pcb designing purpose. Rasbian is used to work on the Raspberry pi Controller.
So, in every company, they will use different controllers and based on the controller we need to work on different IDE tolls. That’s why we need to know about the IDE tools, then only we can do any type of projects.

10) Documentation Skill Needed:

When your working on any project, it is necessary to make documentation also. When so many peoples are working on the same project then documentation is required. When you start designing a project then you need to make a design document, we also need to make testing documents. When some candidate is leaving the company then what activity he did all those things need to capture so that in future it can be used in case of any problem. when any customer buys our product he needs to know about how it will work and he requires manual, to operate that product. When you have completed your project and you need to submit a project for review and release, that time you need to have all document completed.

These are the 10 tips to accelerate your career in an Embedded System and you need to aware of these tips then you can service in any where in the company. And we are the Professional Training Institute in Bangalore, we will mainly focus on the embedded Course in Bangalore which will helpful their carrier and we will help you how to make individual projects also which makes you as an experienced person. So, first please join in any top embedded training institute in Bangalore that is Professional Training Institute.

If Statement

Control Statements:

There are different types of control statements. It is also called as Flow control statements i.e, we can execute the block of program based on the conditions. There are different types of Flow Control Statements. They are

Decision Statement

1. If Statement.
2. If…else and if…else…if statements
3. nested if else statement
4. switch case

Looping Statements

1. for loop
2. while loop
3. do…while loop
4. Nested loop

Jump Statements

1. Break Statement
2. Continue statement
3. goto Statement

If Statement:

If statement is used in c to control the flow of program with conditional expression. If condition is true, then the block of statement will be executed

Syntax:

if( condition)
{
statement 1; // The block of statement which would be executed
statement 2; // when condition is true, then execute this block of statements
……
……
statement n;
}
If the condition is true, then the statement inside the body of “if” only executed. If the condition is false, then the statement inside the body of “if” will be skipped.

How it works:

if statement

Flow Chart:

flow chat of control statement

Now, we can see the example with a program.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a=5, b=8;
if(a<b) // if the condition is true then it will execute the if block statement
{ // if condition is false then it ends the program
printf(“The number a=%d is lessthan b= %d”, a,b);
}
return 0;
}

OUTPUT:

The number a=5 is lessthan b=8.
So now we discussed the If statement and the remaining flow control statements will be explain on the following documents. If you want to establish a good carrier then we need to have good knowledge on the basic language . This language is very useful to the Embedded Systems and to get more knowledge we need join in the top embedded training institutes in Bangalore and we are the Professional Training institute in Bangalore and we will focus on the good knowledge for the students.

Variable

Variable

Variable is a name that can be used to store the values or data. Here, A data type is associated with each variable. The data type of variable decides what value it can take. The data which is stored in the variables exist upto program’s execution, One’s program execution is completed then variables data also expires. The rules of naming a variables are same as that for naming identifiers.

Declaration of a variable:

we need to declare a variable before using in the program.Here, Declaration of a variable defines the name and datatype.The type and range of a value in the variable decides can store depends upon its datatype. The syntax of a variable declaration is shown below

Syntax:

int x; // Used to hold an integer.
float salary; //Used to hold a float value.
char grade; //Can hold/store a character in it.
Where the datatype may be int, char,float double etc,. Here, x is a variable of type int, salary is a
variable of type float, grade is a variable of type char.
we can also declare a more than one variable in a single declaration. For example
int x,y,z,temp;
Here, x,y,z,temp are all variables of int type.

Rules to name a variable:

* Keywords are not allowed as a variable name.
* Variable name is not allowed start with a digit or numbers.
* Variable name can consist of alphabets, digits and special symbols like underscore _.
* Blank or spaces are not allowed in variable name.
Let’s write a program in which we will use some variables :
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
/* variable definition: */
int x, y,z; // x,y,z are the int datatype variables
/* Initialization a valve in variable */
x = 5; // 5 value is stored into the x variable
y = 2; // 2 value is stored into the y variable
/* using addition operator */
z = x + y; // the sum of two variables x and y will stored into the z variable
/* display the result */
printf(“Sum is : %d \n”, z); // displaying the z variable
return 0;

Output:

Sum is 7
Here, if we consider the program we are declaring the variables in the main program that to it has been declared before used. In the program, x,y,z are the int datatype variable and which the system will allocates the seperate memories for each variables. Later, in the program we are initialized the values to the variables I.e, x=5 and y=2. So here the value 5 is stored in the variable x memory location. Similarly, the value 2 is stored in the variable y memory location. So after performing the addition operation the sum value is stored in the z(z=5+2).
If a student is very ambitious about the career in embedded systems industry. They should have a very deep knowledge in the basics . There are lot of famous institutes for embedded systems training institutes in this field. We are the Professional training institute, in Bangalore are focusing on student’s deepest understanding in this field from its basics.

Storage Classes in C

Storage Classes in C

To describe the features of the variable we use storage classes in c programming. Storage classes are used to track the variable during the run time of the program. Storage class describes the lifetime, scope of the variable in a program.
There are four storage classes in c program. They are auto, register, static and extern.
Storage classes in C

Auto:

The variable normally declared inside block or function is of auto type i.e auto is a default storage class for all the variables which are declared inside the block or function.
The scope of auto variables are within the block or functions means Auto variables can be only accessed within the block/function they have been declared and not outside them.
{
Int a;
auto int a;
}
Above we declared two variable of the same type.

Register:

The register storage class is used to define local variables that should be stored in a register instead of RAM.
{
register int c;
}
The register should only be used for variables that require quick access such as counters. It should be noted that describing ‘register’ it does not mean that the variable will be stored in a register. It means it might be stored in a register depending on hardware and implementation restrictions.

Static Variable

The static storage class notifies the compiler to keep a local variable in existence during the lifetime of the program instead of creating and destroying it each time it comes into and goes out of scope. Therefore, making local variables static allows them to maintain their values between function calls.
The static variable can be external or internal, its depends on the place of declaration.
#include<stdio.h>
void foo();
int main(void)
{
foo();
foo();
foo();
}
Void foo()
{
Static int x=1;
Printf(“x=%d”,)
x=x+1;
}

Output: 1,2,3.

Extern

The keyword extern is used with a variable to notify the compiler that the declaration of a variable is done somewhere else. The declaration of extern does not allocate storage for variables.
File1.c //
#include<stdio.h>
int x=3; //global declaration of variable
void foo()
{
 x++;
printf(“%d”,x);
}
File2.c
#include”file1.c”                   //including the file1
main()
{
Extern int x; // global variable from file1 is extracted so x=3.
Foo();
}
So the global variable which is declared in one file can be used in other file using the extern.

Arrays

Arrays

An array is a collection of similar data which is stored in sequential order in the memory. For example, if we save one integer variable into memory it will occupy 4 bytes. If we make another variable then it also occupies 4 bytes, but this memory of two variable may be consecutive or maybe not. This type of variable declaration method is alright until we are having less number of variables.
Once we have to handle the number of variables, it’s maybe 50, 100 then making 50 variable is very difficult.
                int a,b;
We have a solution, we can make an array of N number of the element. In the array, all variable will be saved into consecutive memory locations.

Declaration of array

datatype arrayname[sizeofarray];
Ex:int array[50];
array stored in memory.
array program example
This will reserve 50th places each of size 4 bytes int memory and the good part is all are consecutive in memory locations.
You can initialize an array in C either one by one or using a single statement as follows
marks[5]={47,48,45,44,49};
Or marks[5];
marks[0]=47;, marks[1]=48; marks[2]=45;, marks[3]=44;,marks[4]=49.
How to access this element? This is very simple,
We can access each element individually by showing their place value.
E.g. array[1], array[0], array[24] etc.
Keep remember array always starts from 0, means the first element is always array[0] and last-element is one less than the maximum number element, in our case array[49].

Let’s see the program using the array which explains the declaration, assignment and accessing the array;

#include<stdio.h>
Int main(void)
{
Int a [12]; /* a is array of 12 integers*/
Int I,j; /* I and j are integers*/
/*initializing the values to array elements a */.
for(i=0;i<12;i++)
{
a[i]=i+10; /* assigning value i+10 to ith element*/
}
/* printing the values of elements of array a*/
For(j=0;j<12;j++)
{
Printf(“a[%d]=%d”,j,a[j]);
}
Return 0;
}

Output:

a[0]=10;
a[1]=11;
a[2]=12;
a[3]=13;
a[4]=14;
a[5]=15;
a[6]=16;
a[7]=17;
a[8]=18;
a[9]=19;
a[10]=20;
a[11]=21;

Passing array to function

We can pass array elements to function in two ways. One is bypassing a single value or by passing the full array.
Passing single value to array
#include<stdio.h>
Void foo(int a)
{
printf(“a=%d”,a)
}
Int main (void)
{
Int array[]={1,2,3};
foo(array[1]); // array[1] is passed to the called function foo
Return 0;
}

Output:

a=2;

Passing Entire Array to Function

#include<stdio.h>
Int main(void)
{
Int a[5]={1,2,3,4,5};
Sum=add(a); // passing full array to called function
Printf(“sum=%d”,sum);
return 0;
}
Int add(int a[])
{
Int sum=0, i;
for(i=0;i<5;i++)
{
Sum=sum+a[i];
}
return sum;// return sum to main function.
}

Output

Sum=15;

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