Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering -ptinstitute

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering

Hello, Friend electronics and communication engineering are one of the evergreen branches of Engineering. A student who passes out from engineering does not have enough knowledge in the core field. If you want to do the job in the core field, the best ways to gain knowledge in embedded system to gain the knowledge you can join embedded system training in Bangalore.
If you are an Electronics and communication engineer (ECE/EE/EEE), then feel yourself as very lucky. You are having a tremendous opportunity for jobs. The main advantage of ECE branch is you can work in Core filed like embedded system, Embedded developer in R&D, Embedded tester, Embedded Device repairing, Embedded project development, Embedded C programmer, Telecom filed Networking. You can also work in technical marketing filed like embedded product marketing like UPS, consumer electronics products, Displays, video walls, projectors, IOT wearables, etc.
You may not be aware of which filed you can work. There are many fields in which you can work. So here we will discuss as many filed possible, but I want to say that there are many more filed is still possible you can get a job. This post is mainly cover where all ECE student can get a job. We will also cover in deeply all the pros and cons of those fields. So let’s start your journey called a career.

Embedded System Engineer:

The embedded systems engineer is the most promising job field in the current job field and in future also. For this job profile, the candidate should be good in programming and hardware side too. Candidate should be flexible in writing programs in C programming language, which most widely used in this field and by the knowledge or expertise in this programming language the candidate can work with any other languages which are used in this fields. The hardware side also should be good enough for the candidate. An embedded systems engineer develops the programs with respect to its hardware components. So the candidate must know how to read and understand the data sheets of required components and to develop.

For the best start in this field, it is better you join embedded training. With the course in the embedded system, you can full knowledge of the subject, it will help you get in the job. For training, you can choose Best embedded systems training in Bangalore.

Embedded C Developer /Firmware Engineer:

Another job field for the electronics and communication engineers can choose is embedded c Developer or firmware engineer. Where they will develop source codes for the requirement. For this profile, the candidate should be good in programming languages especially c language. Training programs towards embedded c development are available in the industry. Where the candidate will get the training in c language and will be able to develop the program for microcontrollers or microprocessors.
Students who are not that much interested in the hardware side can go with software development section in the embedded field. There are a lot of embedded systems training institutes are available in Bangalore and other cities in India. You can choose the top embedded training institute in Bangalore.

Linux Internal and Linux Device Driver

Nowadays there is much more application of the Linux operating system. Many companies are started using Linux as an operating system for their product. Being knowledge in Linux Internal and Linux Device driver it will defiantly be going to help in your career.
If you don’t know what is Linux Device Driver then, Hardware device functionality we can control through a program is called device driver. The career growth in this field is very high because in embedded field and in any other electronics or computer science filed we make use this field. What is the importance of making device drivers in Linux platform? Since most of the kernel is working in Linux because of its bug-free nature. So to get a job in this competitive field is get well trained from good institutes to sharpen your skills.
Salary in this field is very high. There are a lot of training institutes are available in this field to give the training. You can join the embedded course in Bangalore and find out embedded course cost if it matters you most, but the salary in this much-much higher than the training cost.

Embedded Hardware Engineer

Embedded hardware engineer designs and performs on the tiny chips what we called microcontrollers or microprocessors. They are not only working on the chips they will work on the required things which can help the chips to work as a system. They will design the hardware board required for the product and so on. Persons who are interested in the hardware or who is not that much keen about software jobs can choose this field. For this field no training institute available. In this filed normally companies higher fresher then give training according to company need. If you still want to join some course to start your career as hardware engineer then you can join embedded system Bangalore.

Embedded Tester:

This field also same as software testing. Embedded software testing is the testing of embedded systems. Embedded software is tested for their performance, consistency, quality and it will get validated as per the requirements of the client.
For the testing field job, the candidate should be aware of Automotive Embedded, Black Box Testing, System Testing, Test Engineer, Unit testing, White Box Testing, and HIL Testing. Knowledge in these fields can easily achieve through a training program.

PLC/SCADA Programming:

Programmable Logic Controller or PLC is a computing system these are used to control electromechanical processes. SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. It is also another type of industrial control system which is used to monitor and control facilities and infrastructure in big industries.

Students can take a training program in this field and can show their skills in this field of programming. This field is mostly working towards instrumentation field. So students who are more interested in electronics and instrumentation can choose this field. But the jobs in this filed is limited and now a day embedded the system is taking over the jobs related to PLC SCADA.

Due to limited jobs and shrinking, the filed salary in this field is very low as compared to the embedded system. Moreover, the engineer working in this filed does not work in the development, the main job is to do the configuration of the PLC device.

Telecom Installer:

This field of job requires some physical work from the employee. It involves the installation and repairs of the telecommunication devices. There are few training institutes which provide knowledge in this filed. Becoming a telecom installer is also another option for ECE job seekers. But the comparison with other above-mentioned jobs it will give less average salary and opportunity to learn new things. Due to telecom completion, this file is now a day having low demands.

RF Engineer:

Radiofrequency engineer is one of the core field jobs. The detailed training program in this field is not much popular duration can be 4-5 days only. Candidate should know about RF planning, cellular networks such as GSM, CDMA, UMTS.HSPA+, LTE, LTE-Advanced, LTE-Advanced Pro, 5G, mmWave, Radar, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth/BLE/BT5.0, Zigbee, Satellite Communications, VSAT, two-way radio, Public Safety, testing, and simulation.

They also have to work on wireless systems also. Lack of skilled persons making this field more demand. In this field, jobs are less but the salary is very high. If you want to do jobs in this field then you need to direly apply to the company which is working in the field of telecom.

Networking Admin

Every company must have computers/Laptops when man computers are coming together and using the internet then we need some methods through which they can connect together.
Not only computer connectivity there are many more things that network engineer do like server maintenance, data security, VOIP connectivity, etc. Network administration is a job highly demands job in the industry. Because they will install, support and manage all the computers and networks in the companies which will ensure the flow of data or work is going without fail.
There are a lot of training programs and certification courses are available in this field to get the job. But there are a lot of trained peoples there in the field so the perks of the job are getting reduced. Each and every company need a network engineer. So trained resource candidate in this is having a very good career opportunity.
You can easily open your own company in this field, and earn huge money.

Technical Marketing:

Technical persons with good communication skills and the ability to impress people with their new product can have a bright future in this field. To become a technical marketing person the candidate should at least have good communication and thorough knowledge in the respective field. There is no specified training program in this field. But then also we can get some training on the marketing side.
If the candidate doesn’t have that much passion towards development area they choose this field as it is easy to get comparatively other development jobs in the core fields.

Equipment Installation and Maintenance Engineer:

Equipment installation and maintenance won’t demand that much from the technical side. The candidate should be aware of the company products and mainly how to install those. This field also doesn’t have any proper training program from outside. Because it mainly depends on the company products and it will change from company to company. Other benefits in this field comparatively lesser than developments. If the candidate wants to change his field to develop it will become a little hard for them.

Technical Contains Writer:

It’s a huge demanding field as every product development companies once they develop the products they need technical content writers to describe their products, it’s usage, maintenance, etc. (for product manual). This field requires good writing skills and knowledge in the products. We can’t take any training program in this field but then also we do to improve the writing skills in the required language.

Engineering College Faculty:

This a good choice for the people who are more interested in teaching. Who has good teaching sense? We can’t give any training to this field as it is somebody’s skill to make students get understand. Candidate should have a thorough knowledge of the subject for this profile. But the salary in this filed is limited.

Non-Core Jobs:

Software testing, Java developer, Big Data/Hadoop/AWS:

Though these jobs are technical these do not core jobs to ECE field. These jobs easily available in the market and number of training programs also available. Though these are easily available the benefits and growth in this field are less because in this field the number of students is getting trained in each year because of less training fee, a number of institutes, etc.

Non-Technical jobs Like BPO, Tele-caller:

Training is on the job only, no institutes are giving training for these. But people can take training in for their language improvement. These jobs will have a pretty good salary in the beginning but once the employee gets experienced then the higher posts will be highly filtered because this field is huge in a number of employees. So the increment in the salary or other benefits will become saturated once they got experienced. The ratio of growth will get slow compared to other development jobs.


There is a huge opportunity is available for ECE student, but the most promising field is embedded system development. There are many embedded system ideas which are yet to come out from your mind, once you have a clear idea about the product then you can start making them. Embedded system training cost is much lesser than any other training in the core filed. Once you do training then you can easily get a job in embedded filed.
The advantage of working in core filed is no other branch can come and replace you in the future. In all other filed it will be very easy to replace you, so in the future, you will get less salary. In core embedded filed nobody can replace easily. Choosing a profession after ECE is difficult. Then we should think about our passion or interest in each field. Once you determined to operate in one field try to get good training in the same. It will help you in the future to secure a good position.



Best Embedded System Projects Ideas for Final Year Students

embedded system projects ideas - PTInstitute

Best Embedded System Projects Ideas for Final Year Students

Embedded system is a look like a computer system, it is the combination of both hardware, and software, it is normally designed to perform the several operations like data accessing, processing that data and data storing in the real-time applications. Embedded system is fastest growing in day-to-day life and also increasing the institutes for embedded training, there are a number of embedded systems training institutes, who are giving training for embedded systems. Embedded systems projects are possibly the group of projects, particularly with regarding the electronics & electrical students. For completing the whole embedded project, we need to study about the Embedded System course and we are the Professional Training Institute, we will train the students to be good in the embedded systems, we will teach to the students how to develop a project and what we need learn when you are doing a project. While choosing any embedded system course we need to join in the best-embedded system training institute. Here, you will find the top embedded training institutes in Bangalore as well. Nowadays, there are many ways to build our carrier. But when it comes to ECE/EEE/EE student then we are having very fewer options. Students are having a few top Technologies for doing projects are on VLSI/SCADA-PLC/ and Embedded system. If you are interested to do projects, then one of the best and core field is an embedded system. I will discuss with you how to build a project on Embedded System, if we have done more projects on embedded systems then we will have a successful career in the embedded system.

Embedded systems are found in simple devices like television remote controls, calculators & microwave and also in more complicated devices like medical, home security, traffic control systems and military etc.., nowadays many engineering students are interested to do simple embedded projects to build their carrier on jobs in the embedded systems and improving the practical knowledge. We can use 8051 Microcontroller, PIC, Arduino, and Raspberry Pi controllers to build embedded projects. For doing any embedded project we need to aware of embedded courses. Here, we are giving some list of embedded systems.

1. Vehicle Tracking By GPS – GSM
2. Automatic Bell System for Institutions
3. Cell Phone Controlled Robotic Vehicle.
4. Fire Fighting Robotic Vehicle.
5. IR Controlled Robotic Vehicle.
6. Design and Implementation of a Metal Detector Robotic Vehicle.
7. RFID Based Device Control and Authentication Using PIC Microcontroller.
8. Temperature Controlled Fan Projects.
9. Design of Embedded Security Door Lock System
10. Communication between two PC using ZigBee.

The above are some of the embedded projects and firmware developers need to have good knowledge about hardware development and understand the internal workings of an embedded processor. Embedded Software Development generally involves below steps:
1 Development of product based on our requirement
2 Coding
3 Hardware Development
4 Testing.

embedded system project ideas - PTInstitute

1. Development of Product based on our Requirement:

We need to choose a project, which we are going to design, and we need to add some more features if we are doing an existing project. We need to gather all the required components and an overview idea of the project and we need to select a particular controller which will help for easy designing. We need to gather all the components and study of each component how they are working and how we need to interface with the controller. Then make an algorithm for the project which we need to design, then analyze how it needs to implement to the hardware section.

2. Coding:

Coding is the main part of the Embedded Projects because all controllers will work with the machine language only. Here, the controller will work and interface with all the peripherals based on the code we have written. In our life, we know only C language, till now we don’t have any other requirement to learn other languages. C is the main programming language for the embedded system. Mainly C language is working more closely hardware. it is most widely used programming in the world. While you are sitting in an interview, you should have complete knowledge of C language. In any embedded system, interview 90% questions will come from C language. you should have control over C language. In Interview, the company is expecting a very deep understanding of C, normally they ask higher end of C language like a function pointer, structure, union, pointer, the array of structure pointer etc. In order to achieve control over the interview, you should go complete understanding of C language.
When you want to do a project, you have to design an embedded product and you need to use C language. We need to know Advance knowledge in C language. We need to write a code for our embedded project we have to write code by interfacing all the peripherals and making the controller to be work as per our requirement. As a deeper understanding, you will have to learn a C language that much good code you can write. We are a Professional Training Institute in Bangalore, we give training in C completely hands on, it will make our student knowledge stronger than any experienced student.

3. Hardware Development:

While designing a Hardware, we need to know all the hardware components, which we are used in the embedded projects. Normally component used in Embedded is Resistance, capacitor, inductance, diode, transistor we should be aware of these components, how to use them, limitation etc. We may also need to have knowledge of ICs like RTC DS1307, EEPROM – 24c04, ADC 0804, RS232, ULN2003 etc we should know what all types of ICs are available and where we can use them. When we know how the hardware components will work and how to interface with other components then we can easily complete the projects with less help with others. First, we need to draw a schematic for that project then we can do a simulation on the system, for example, we can do the simulation on Proteus and we can check the output of our requirement. If our schematic circuit is correct then we can make that as PCB design by proper placing the components and make sure about the Soldering, after soldering each component check that whether it happens any shorted. Then finally dump the code into the controller and check the output.

4. Testing:

When we complete the project by making Hardware interfacing and code writing then we need to check that the complete project working as per our requirement. First, we need to dump the code to the controller then we need to check the output. If we are getting then our process is completed and we submit the project if output did not come then we need to check where the errors getting and we need to debug that errors. Like first we need to check for every component getting a power supply as per our requirement then we need to check at each component whether each component has desired input and output and whether it is working or not if there any problem try to replace with another component. Check all the connection, wiring connection and check whether any short circuit happens. Like this, we need to debug the whole network and analyze the errors than correct it. After the testing completed it is necessary to make documentation also. When you start designing the project then you need to make a design document. When any customer buys our product he needs to know about how it will work and he requires manual, to operate that product. When you have completed your project and you need to submit a project for review and release, that time you need to have all the document completed.

For doing this Embedded Projects, we need to join in the topmost Embedded Training Institute and we need to check whether they can provide good training or not. Our embedded system training in Bangalore has good knowledge on embedded systems and can take of each student in a batch so if you want to grow your carrier at a peak level then immediately join in our institute or you can top most embedded institutes.



10 Tips to Accelerate Your Engineering Career in Embedded System

10 Tips to Accelerate Your Engineering Career in embedded system_

10 Tips to Accelerate Your Engineering Career in Embedded System

Now a days, there are many ways to build our carrier. But when it comes to ECE/EEE/EE/ student then we are having very less options. For Us we are having few top choises are VLSI/SCADA-PLC/ and Embedded system. Here VLSI is having very limited scope in India, while SCADA is not in much trand now a day, while are having one of the best and core field is Embedded system. I will discuss with you how to build your successful career in Embedded system. Before I move on I will introduce my self so that you can relies on the information which I am providing here.
I am Yogesh Kumar Sharma from founder of Professional Training Institute, having 15+ years of industrial experience in embedded development. Okay so let’s start your journey in the embedded world.
As of my past experience I will explain the 10 most important tips to accelerate your engineering career in embedded systems.

1. Practical Working Knowledge in Embedded Devices:

If we wanna to make our career in embedded system then first we need to know about all the embedded devices used in the projects development. Every companies will use different types of controllers based on project. So, we need to have some knowledge on different controllers because if we are working in any company they will give project and the requirements only and there is your job to make that complete project and you need to study which controller is suitable to that requirement. If we want to design any project we need a knowledge on embedded devices which we are using for our requirements. So, firstly, we need to learn the embedded components, the controllers, the protocols, tools, programming language etc,. you should gain some practical knowledge in embedded system, you should do some hands on experiment with the latest technologies to make them use correctly. Here in Embedded Training Institute in Bangalorewe give directly projects to the students and they gains hands on knowledge on embedded system from us.

2. Embedded Development Life Cycle:

By knowing the Embedded development life cycle will helps a lot in your career. you can only make the project by own without anyone help. Normally process is depends upon individual company but normally we follow SDLC with some changes. For complete embedded development cycle involves different steps.
First, the market team will give a requirement for their application and based on their application R&D engineer need to analyze the project for feasibility of project, technology required, past experience within organization etc.
Following are the steps normally followed in organization
a) Requirement
b) Feasibility
c) specification
d) Design
e) Implementation
f) Testing and validation

Then R&D team will start the design and implementation.
The above steps are part of SDLC – software development life cycle. After implementation complete product testing is started. once you should know the above steps.

3. Command Over C Language is Very Important:

In my life i know only C language, till now i don’t have any other requirement to learn other language. C is the programming language for embedded system. Mainly C language is working more closely hardware. it is most widely used programming in the world. While you are setting in any interview you should have complete knowledge of C language. In any embedded system interview 90% questions will come from C language. you should have control over C language. In Interview company is expecting very deep understanding of C, normally they ask higher end of C language like, function pointer, structure, union, pointer, array of structure pointer etc. In order to achieve control over interview you should go complete understanding of C language.
When you work in company, you have to design an embedded product and you need to use C language. We need to know Advance knowledge in C language. As deeper understanding you will have in C language that much good code you can write. We are the professional training institute in Bangalore, we give training in C completely hands on, it will make our student knowledge more stronger than any experience student.

4. Understanding of Hardware Component, Their Use and Datasheet Reading Skills:

As an Embedded Engineer, we need to know all the hardware components which we are used in the Embedded projects. Normally component used in Embedded is Resistance, capacitor, inductance, diode, transistor we should be aware of these components, how to use them, limitation etc. We may also need have knowledge of ICs like RTC DS1307, EEPROM – 24c04, ADC 0804, RS232, ULN2003 etc we should know what all types of ics are available and where we can use them. Although many types are ICs are available in the marketing, but we should be aware of all main ICs. When we know that how the hardware components will work and how to interface with other components then we can easily complete the projects with less help with others.
During training our student do lot of experiments with the above ic and gets hands on understanding of that. during experiment student read data sheet and use the information mentioned in that. you also must know what all are the important parameter we need to check in data sheet.

5) Debugging skills of software – Embedded firmware.

If your writing code for running hardware then if you are lucky then your code will work as it is. but in most of the case, I won’t. Firmware won’t work as it is, And if firmware not working then we have to make it work. We have to find out what is the mistake we did, for that we need debugging skills. But the difficult part is how to learn to debug, here in the Professional Training Institute we ensure that during training student face enough problems so that he/she can develop debugging skills. However, when we got an error we need to go through the ocean and solve the problem faced. We need a lot of analytical skills to overcome the possible cause of the error, to narrow down the scope of error. Still, there is a possibility that some error will solve in 10 min, some error will solve in a few days, but some may take months or years. But it will surely be having a root cause. Sometimes, we are written the firmware code correctly but we are getting errors because of there is a malfunction in the hardware circuit(we don’t know that), so with how many times if you check also you won’t found the answer for that error. Because of these, we need to have good debugging skills while working on Embedded products.

6) Unit testing, Component Testing, System Testing skills:

This is the one more skill to need to establish the embedded systems developer, it is used for testing the complete hardware products. when we make firmware we need to check that it is working or not, this is called unit testing. In unit testing, we ensure whatever functionality we had developed that has to be working correctly. if we found any bug then we need to correct them. once unit testing is done then we give our component for testing, this testing may be done by some other team.
We are having another level of testing that is called component testing- in the component testing, we ensure the individual component is working correctly. This individual component can include hardware, software. To test components we may need to give some dummy input for testing. Once the independent component is working correctly then we can go for integration testing. In this, we check full system functionality. If we found some issue then we have solved them at individual level.

7) Hardware Debugging is a Requirement While Working:

when you are working on any project many times system is not working, you have to debug and diagnose the problem. To debugging an embedded device we must know the art of debugging hardware. As an embedded engineer we should know where is the problem located, why device not working. For firmware, we are having a debugger, but hardware we are not having the debugger. we need to check signal one by one and find the problem.
You should have hands-on knowledge of the tool used to debug hardware like logic analyzer, CRO, multimeter etc. When are testing an embedded hardware part for an errors first we need to check individually and then the whole system.
The following point may help in hardware debugging
• We need to check first all the equipment are working or not individually.
• Next, we need to check the input requirements to all the devices.
• Next, we need to analyze the errors occurs and we need to check is there any short circuit or not.
• If there is an error occurs when we need to rearrange that product without any of errors.

So, we need to aware of hardware debugging also. We are professional training institutes in Bangalore and we will focus on the student’s knowledge and we will train you on Hardware debugging also. We will teach you how to build a hardware part in the project and how to rectify if any error occurs on the hardware part.

8) Component Review – Firmware Review Skills:

If we are doing any projects and we need to make that project should be run exactly. While creating any firmware code that must meet all requirements. But in many times development is done by the junior member of the team, and he may have a full understanding of the system. so there is a possibility that he may make some mistake which is working currently but later it may give some problem or may in component level it is working bust system level it will not work. This point needs to check and must be review by a senior member of the team. To check the code for its functionality is called code review. normally it is done by a senior member in the team. But you should also have the same skills so that while writing code itself you come to know what mistake is possible and you can make correct firmware

9) Master the Tools of the Trade:

When you’re doing any project on Embedded System we need to know compulsory on tools which will use to work on projects that make to accelerate a career is to master the tools of the trade. The tools which will be used to work on the Embedded projects are Keil, Proteus, Flash Magic, Mp Lab, MATLAB, Kicad, Altium Designer, Eagle, OrCad, STM32 CubeMax, Arduino, Rasbian etc., By using these tools based on controllers like Arduino is used to write firmware in Arduino and Node Mcu ESP8266 etc,. Keil is used to writing a C code or Assembly code and for compilation process. Proteus is used for a schematic of the hardware section and checking the code as well as hardware project is working or not. Flash Magic is used to dump the code into a microcontroller(8051MC, LPC21XX, etc) and Kicad, Altium Designer, Eagle, OrCad are used for Pcb designing purpose. Rasbian is used to work on the Raspberry pi Controller.
So, in every company, they will use different controllers and based on the controller we need to work on different IDE tolls. That’s why we need to know about the IDE tools, then only we can do any type of projects.

10) Documentation Skill Needed:

When your working on any project, it is necessary to make documentation also. When so many peoples are working on the same project then documentation is required. When you start designing a project then you need to make a design document, we also need to make testing documents. When some candidate is leaving the company then what activity he did all those things need to capture so that in future it can be used in case of any problem. when any customer buys our product he needs to know about how it will work and he requires manual, to operate that product. When you have completed your project and you need to submit a project for review and release, that time you need to have all document completed.

These are the 10 tips to accelerate your career in an Embedded System and you need to aware of these tips then you can service in any where in the company. And we are the Professional Training Institute in Bangalore, we will mainly focus on the embedded Course in Bangalore which will helpful their carrier and we will help you how to make individual projects also which makes you as an experienced person. So, first please join in any top embedded training institute in Bangalore that is Professional Training Institute.

If Statement

Control Statements:

There are different types of control statements. It is also called as Flow control statements i.e, we can execute the block of program based on the conditions. There are different types of Flow Control Statements. They are

Decision Statement

1. If Statement.
2. If…else and if…else…if statements
3. nested if else statement
4. switch case

Looping Statements

1. for loop
2. while loop
3. do…while loop
4. Nested loop

Jump Statements

1. Break Statement
2. Continue statement
3. goto Statement

If Statement:

If statement is used in c to control the flow of program with conditional expression. If condition is true, then the block of statement will be executed


if( condition)
statement 1; // The block of statement which would be executed
statement 2; // when condition is true, then execute this block of statements
statement n;
If the condition is true, then the statement inside the body of “if” only executed. If the condition is false, then the statement inside the body of “if” will be skipped.

How it works:

if statement

Flow Chart:

flow chat of control statement

Now, we can see the example with a program.
int main()
int a=5, b=8;
if(a<b) // if the condition is true then it will execute the if block statement
{ // if condition is false then it ends the program
printf(“The number a=%d is lessthan b= %d”, a,b);
return 0;


The number a=5 is lessthan b=8.
So now we discussed the If statement and the remaining flow control statements will be explain on the following documents. If you want to establish a good carrier then we need to have good knowledge on the basic language . This language is very useful to the Embedded Systems and to get more knowledge we need join in the top embedded training institutes in Bangalore and we are the Professional Training institute in Bangalore and we will focus on the good knowledge for the students.



Variable is a name that can be used to store the values or data. Here, A data type is associated with each variable. The data type of variable decides what value it can take. The data which is stored in the variables exist upto program’s execution, One’s program execution is completed then variables data also expires. The rules of naming a variables are same as that for naming identifiers.

Declaration of a variable:

we need to declare a variable before using in the program.Here, Declaration of a variable defines the name and datatype.The type and range of a value in the variable decides can store depends upon its datatype. The syntax of a variable declaration is shown below


int x; // Used to hold an integer.
float salary; //Used to hold a float value.
char grade; //Can hold/store a character in it.
Where the datatype may be int, char,float double etc,. Here, x is a variable of type int, salary is a
variable of type float, grade is a variable of type char.
we can also declare a more than one variable in a single declaration. For example
int x,y,z,temp;
Here, x,y,z,temp are all variables of int type.

Rules to name a variable:

* Keywords are not allowed as a variable name.
* Variable name is not allowed start with a digit or numbers.
* Variable name can consist of alphabets, digits and special symbols like underscore _.
* Blank or spaces are not allowed in variable name.
Let’s write a program in which we will use some variables :
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
/* variable definition: */
int x, y,z; // x,y,z are the int datatype variables
/* Initialization a valve in variable */
x = 5; // 5 value is stored into the x variable
y = 2; // 2 value is stored into the y variable
/* using addition operator */
z = x + y; // the sum of two variables x and y will stored into the z variable
/* display the result */
printf(“Sum is : %d \n”, z); // displaying the z variable
return 0;


Sum is 7
Here, if we consider the program we are declaring the variables in the main program that to it has been declared before used. In the program, x,y,z are the int datatype variable and which the system will allocates the seperate memories for each variables. Later, in the program we are initialized the values to the variables I.e, x=5 and y=2. So here the value 5 is stored in the variable x memory location. Similarly, the value 2 is stored in the variable y memory location. So after performing the addition operation the sum value is stored in the z(z=5+2).
If a student is very ambitious about the career in embedded systems industry. They should have a very deep knowledge in the basics . There are lot of famous institutes for embedded systems training institutes in this field. We are the Professional training institute, in Bangalore are focusing on student’s deepest understanding in this field from its basics.

Storage Classes in C

Storage Classes in C

To describe the features of the variable we use storage classes in c programming. Storage classes are used to track the variable during the run time of the program. Storage class describes the lifetime, scope of the variable in a program.
There are four storage classes in c program. They are auto, register, static and extern.
Storage classes in C


The variable normally declared inside block or function is of auto type i.e auto is a default storage class for all the variables which are declared inside the block or function.
The scope of auto variables are within the block or functions means Auto variables can be only accessed within the block/function they have been declared and not outside them.
Int a;
auto int a;
Above we declared two variable of the same type.


The register storage class is used to define local variables that should be stored in a register instead of RAM.
register int c;
The register should only be used for variables that require quick access such as counters. It should be noted that describing ‘register’ it does not mean that the variable will be stored in a register. It means it might be stored in a register depending on hardware and implementation restrictions.

Static Variable

The static storage class notifies the compiler to keep a local variable in existence during the lifetime of the program instead of creating and destroying it each time it comes into and goes out of scope. Therefore, making local variables static allows them to maintain their values between function calls.
The static variable can be external or internal, its depends on the place of declaration.
void foo();
int main(void)
Void foo()
Static int x=1;

Output: 1,2,3.


The keyword extern is used with a variable to notify the compiler that the declaration of a variable is done somewhere else. The declaration of extern does not allocate storage for variables.
File1.c //
int x=3; //global declaration of variable
void foo()
#include”file1.c”                   //including the file1
Extern int x; // global variable from file1 is extracted so x=3.
So the global variable which is declared in one file can be used in other file using the extern.



An array is a collection of similar data which is stored in sequential order in the memory. For example, if we save one integer variable into memory it will occupy 4 bytes. If we make another variable then it also occupies 4 bytes, but this memory of two variable may be consecutive or maybe not. This type of variable declaration method is alright until we are having less number of variables.
Once we have to handle the number of variables, it’s maybe 50, 100 then making 50 variable is very difficult.
                int a,b;
We have a solution, we can make an array of N number of the element. In the array, all variable will be saved into consecutive memory locations.

Declaration of array

datatype arrayname[sizeofarray];
Ex:int array[50];
array stored in memory.
array program example
This will reserve 50th places each of size 4 bytes int memory and the good part is all are consecutive in memory locations.
You can initialize an array in C either one by one or using a single statement as follows
Or marks[5];
marks[0]=47;, marks[1]=48; marks[2]=45;, marks[3]=44;,marks[4]=49.
How to access this element? This is very simple,
We can access each element individually by showing their place value.
E.g. array[1], array[0], array[24] etc.
Keep remember array always starts from 0, means the first element is always array[0] and last-element is one less than the maximum number element, in our case array[49].

Let’s see the program using the array which explains the declaration, assignment and accessing the array;

Int main(void)
Int a [12]; /* a is array of 12 integers*/
Int I,j; /* I and j are integers*/
/*initializing the values to array elements a */.
a[i]=i+10; /* assigning value i+10 to ith element*/
/* printing the values of elements of array a*/
Return 0;



Passing array to function

We can pass array elements to function in two ways. One is bypassing a single value or by passing the full array.
Passing single value to array
Void foo(int a)
Int main (void)
Int array[]={1,2,3};
foo(array[1]); // array[1] is passed to the called function foo
Return 0;



Passing Entire Array to Function

Int main(void)
Int a[5]={1,2,3,4,5};
Sum=add(a); // passing full array to called function
return 0;
Int add(int a[])
Int sum=0, i;
return sum;// return sum to main function.



Pointers and Function Arguments

Pointers and Function Arguments

In call by reference method for a function call, we are using pointers in function as arguments. Pointers as arguments in function are used to hold the address of variables passed from calling the function. If a function is called by reference and any change made to the reference variable will affect the original variable.

Let us consider a program for more detailed study

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
int main()
int m = 10, n = 20;
printf(“Before swapping:\n\n”);
printf(“m = %d\n”, m);
printf(“n = %d\n\n”, n);
swap(&m, &n); //passing address of m and n to the swap function
printf(“After Swapping:\n\n”);
printf(“m = %d\n”, m);
printf(“n = %d”, n);
return 0;
pointer ‘a’ and ‘b’ holds and
points to the address of ‘m’ and ‘n’
void swap(int *a, int *b)
// pointers as the function arguments
int temp;
temp = *a;
*a = *b;
*b = temp;


Before swapping:


After swapping:

Let’s check the detailed explanation of the program. We initialized two integer variables m,n and we printed its value before swapping that is 10,20.
Now we are calling a function by passing the address of the arguments to the called function. When we are calling a function current status of the program execution will be saved in the stack and the program counter will jump to the called function. In the called function swap pointers are used as the function arguments and denoted as int *a, int *b. with these arguments, we can hold the address of the integer variables m and n. pointer variable *a have the address of m and b have the address of n.
In the called function we declared an integer variable temp. The de-referenced value of *a is assigned to temp ie, 10 De-referenced value of b is assigned to pointer a. Now a became 20 Finally value in the variable temp is assigned to *b, so b became 10 When we were assigning values to the pointers all these values were got stored directly in the memory location. The memory locations which were held by the pointers. *a have the address of m and the value 10 in the beginning so after the swapping to that memory location 20 came and overwritten the 10 Same things happened to *b.
Let’s see the picture below for the clarification.
 Also, Learn Embedded System Click Here

Conditional Operators

Conditional Operators:

Conditional operators also called ternary operators. Because it has three sets of expressions. Conditional operators return one value if the condition is true and returns another value if the condition is wrong.
The syntax of the expression and example is given below.




Let’s consider a program for the detailed understanding,
Int main()
Int a=10;
Int b=20;
Int c;
Printf(“The value after conditional operation is %d”,c=(a>b?a,b));
Return 0;


The value after conditional operation is 20
So in this program, We are initializing two integers a, b as 10 and 20 And another variable c. we are took
use of printf to print the output of conditional operator.
Conditional operator comparing the values of a and b. if a is greater than b. it will print the value of a or
b. In our example b is greater than a. so the conditional operators will print the variable b value.

Advantage of Getting Trained in Embedded System

Advantage of getting trained in embedded system

Advantages of Getting Trained in the Embedded Systems

Embedded system training helps to get the full knowledge of the embedded domain. Embedded system is being used in all our day to day life.

The embedded training program is designed such a way that it helps you to learn the concepts of embedded systems, which includes the hardware design and the software principles.

The Training program offers a clear understanding of the several different embedded systems and their formation and usability.

This training helps the students to understand the various computer systems meant for the exact functions. Any individual having interest in this embedded domain can go for this training to make their career brighter. Our embedded training institute in Bangalore will teach the complete course of embedded system and we will give 100% course in and give good knowledge for the students here, so you can explore us and join our Free embedded training program in Professional Training Institute to enhance your skills. During the training program, You will get the Clear idea of knowledge in the embedded domain.

You can able to do your own projects using different controllers,

There are Plenty of Jobs Available in Embedded System

As technology is growing the embedded field is also growing very fast, so there are many job openings in the present industry for the embedded domain. We use embedded system everywhere in our day to day life, the main applications of embedded system are in the home automation, in the automotive industry, in agriculture, in defense, and in hospitals etc. so there are plenty of employees needed in research and development, testing, application, software development and in many other domains.

College Learning is Outdated, Industries Need Practical Knowledge

As industries using new technologies, so according to that our knowledge should be updated, we should have good knowledge of present technologies. Most of the college syllabus what we learned includes old technologies and it includes only basic information, which is not enough to work in industries.  As the college teaches about the old syllabus, which industry not using presently, the students just passed out from college will not have a clear understanding of present technologies. We at Professional Training Institute update our syllabus after every six months, our student gets full practical training. We train the students according to the present using technologies in the industries. So getting training in the embedded system make you develop your practical skills and you will be having

Once You Get Trained, Lifelong You Can Use that Knowledge

Once you get trained, you will be having a good understanding of the embedded system. When you have a clear understanding of the subject, you can utilize that knowledge whenever you want in future. We at professional training institute train our student such a way that, it’s easy for them to work in industries as they will have good practical knowledge.

Whatever you Getting Training Same Knowledge Needed While Working in Company

All training institute focus on present technology, they train their student based on the latest technologies. We at professional training institute train our student on latest technologies, which make them work easily in industry. The training environment at professional training is as like working in the industry. We focus more on practical classes, we help our student to work independently.

The Companies are Contacting Embedded Training Institute for Their Job Opening

Nowadays many companies are looking for trained students, as it will save their time. The process of interview will be easy for them. As a requirement of employees is more and in short time they want the employees, so companies contact the training institutes and they recruit directly the professionally trained students.

Good Embedded System Training Institute will Give You Training in All Dimension.

Many of training institute focus to develop the different skills, like personality development, communication skills and logical skills. We are also focusing on students’ knowledge and we will trained the students as an employer. When you got a job you can feel the job as equal to the experienced people because we will train you on practical knowledge mainly and we can make you to complete some projects on embedded systems individually. So, you will be look like an experienced person.



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