Operators in C

Operators in C :

There are a lot of symbols in C. One set of them we can call as operators. Operators are symbols which tell the computer to do some specific task. C is Rich with operators. They are mentioned below.
Before we proceed further consider A+B=C
Here A, B, C are the operands and ‘+’ is the operator. A+B=C is the operation.

a) Arithmetic Operators

All the arithmetic operations we can do with the arithmetic operators.

b) Relational Operators

These operators will check the relation between the two operands. Its output will come as true or false. If it is true it will execute the following code otherwise not.

c) Logical Operators

It will check the logical relationship between the two cases. Depending upon the logical operators we used and its condition it will give the result.

d) Bitwise Operators

As the name suggests bitwise operators work on bits and will do the operations on the bits.

e) Assignment Operators

Assignment operators will assign the value of an operand to another operand after the operation.

f) Misc Operators

These also called as special purpose operators. They also have a special function to complete.
All these operators above mentioned will explain in detailed in the next topics.

Pointers and Addresses

Pointers and Addresses:

When we are talking about the program and its execution we will come up with addresses. All the variables, functions, arrays, etc like whatever we are using to write and execute a program all are saved in memory. Memory will be starting and ending with some memory address. The accessibility to these memories we can do only with memory addresses only. It will give the privilege to the programmer to make changes from a very base level.


It is the information about the data, where it is saved in memory. If you want the address of a variable
you can use the ’&’ address of the operator.


It is the ability of the variable to hold the address of another variable(Points to the address of another variable). The pointer is denoted ‘*’ Asteric symbol. One of the major advantages of the pointer is it will give direct access to the memory address of the variables, functions, arrays, strings, linked list etc..
The size of the pointer is depending upon the size of the memory. For eg, if the memory is 8-bit memory the pointer size will be 8 bit. If it is 16 bit then the pointer will be 16-bit memory.
Let us check an example program.
Int main()
Int a=90;
//integer variable definition
Int *p;
// pointer declaration
// Assigning the address of a to the pointer p.
Printf(“Value of integer a =%d”,a);
Printf(“Value of integer pointer p =%d”,p);
Printf(“Address of integer a =%d”,&a);
Printf(“Address of integer pointer p =%d”,&p);
Printf(“De-referenced value of integer pointer p =%d”,*p);
Return 0;

Top 10 Interview Questions in Embedded System with Answers

Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded system with Answers by PTInstitute

Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded system with Answers

Hi Students,

Every one very curious about the interview questions because you don’t know what type of questions Recruiter will ask so our embedded training institute in Bangalore is offering top 10 questions for students who are eager to get a job in the embedded field. With Professional Training Institute, You can get embedded system training which is 100% practical based training so you can get a place soon. Here see top 10 interview question in the embedded system.

Top 10 Interview Questions by Embedded Training Institute in Bangalore

1) What is the use of the volatile keyword?

I will answer this question in three level

Beginner level (Fresher)

Volatile is the keyword used for optimization by the compiler during code compilation. We are conveying the message to the compiler “Hey look this pieces of code can be modified externally so don’t optimized this code associated with the current variable”
Int main()
Int volatile vari=1;
Int Baudrate;
While (vari==1)
Baudrate = 9600;
If we did not make “vari” as volatile then compiler will remove this while loop as the value of “vari” is not going to change anywhere in the program.

Mid-Level (Experience less than 5 years):

Volatile was mainly introduced for the compiler to help in decision taking for code optimization. Until we are using C as application programming there is no impact of Volatile keyword, but as soon as we start handling with Peripheral like timer, ADC, I2C, RTC, IO port, Interrupt service routines(ISRs) then volatile is a most important keyword.
I am sure many times/some time you may face any of below conditions
1) When optimization is off, the code works fine but as soon as optimization is on code give some random error. In some compiler, we are having a different level of optimization. Therefore, up to certain level code works beyond that code gives an error.
2) Sometimes as soon as we start using Interrupt then some random error is generating.
3) In multitasking, system individual task works correctly but multiple tasks together give a problem.
So now consider below example
“static volatile sig_atomic_t signo[_NSIG];”
Here word static is defining the scope of the variable, while word volatile is giving instruction to the compiler that doesn’t optimize the code.
Please note volatile does not control or change the storage class of variable. While static keyword controls the storage class.
In another example
const volatile char *PORTA = (const volatile char *) 0x50;
Here we are saying that PORTA is defined at address 0x50, asking compiler not to optimized below code, at the same time by using const we are removing any by mistake writing by the user.
While (PORTA == 0xFF)
//do something here
While (PORTA!=0xFF)
If we did not make PORTA as the volatile compiler will optimized II while loop as he will think I while loop will never fail.
Const means if we write by mistake below the line.
PORTA= 0x55; – Compiler itself will give error.

Senior Level (More than 5 years):

A senior person can include few of above points and refer below advance information.
“An object that has volatile-qualified type may be modified in ways unknown to the implementation or have other unknown side effects. Therefore any expression referring to such an object shall be evaluated strictly according to the rules of the abstract machine.”
The line is taken from C-Open standard. Which clearly says that the volatile keyword should be implemented as an abstract machine. Which clearly means compiler can’t change anything, compiler need to convert C code as it is in
You can refer “ISO/IEC 9899: TC3” for more information.

2) Can a variable be both const and volatile?

This question is already answered above but in short discuss again.
The const keyword makes sure that the value of the variable declared as constant can’t be changed. This statement holds true in the scope of the full program. So if by mistake user tried to write on const variable compiler itself will give the error, and say read-only variable can’t change.
Since variable can’t change anywhere in the code the compiler will be tried to the optimized code associated with this variable, the compiler may think this code will not change in current
So the word volatile is the instruction to the compiler, look compiler although variable is not changing in current scope, it can change from any other unknown factors (Like IO operations, Switch operation, ISR, other Task etc.) so don’t optimize.

3) What is a static variable? Or what is a static keyword?

Both questions are look’s like same but they are different, let’s analyze carefully
What is a Static variable? Any variable we can analyze in two ways
A) Scope.
B) Life.
A) The scope of static variable –
1) If the variable is defined in local scope (Means inside of any function, may be either main or any other function), then the scope of static variable will be within a function.
2) If a static variable is defined in global scope (Means not inside any function) then the scope of the variable will be within the file. In the same file, any function can use this variable.
B) Life of scope variable –
1) Life of static variable is throughout the program. No matter it is defined in the local scope or global scope.
Storage class of static variable is Data segment, not stack. Let’s understand this. All local variables are stored in the stack, the stack is RAM memory which is used for temporary storage, all local variable of the function is stored here STACK and once we exit from that function this memory get free. So it means once we exit from function all local
variable has died. But if we want to preserve our variable even after the exit from the function, so that when next time we enter into the same function we should get same old value, in this case, we can define a variable as a STATIC variable.

What is the static keyword in C?

To answer this question you to include all the above points and as well as this static keyword can be applied to function. When any function is defined static then the function will be available into the same file. Other files can’t use that function.
This property is used for when with the same name we have interface other functionality then we can make functions with static scope, and other files also can have a function with the same. While the wrapper function will call the local static function.

4) What is the difference between a global static variable and a global variable?

The scope of the global variable is throughout the program, while the scope of a static variable is within the file.
Life of both variables (static variable and global) is throughout the program. Here understand question carefully. Questions are asking global static variable. It means is variable is saved in the file scope. Within file any function can use that variable, this variable will not be available in any other files.
While global variable can be accessed through any file.

5) What is the difference between structure and union?

C language is having many system-defined data types like char, int, float, double, long etc. we are also having an array of the above data types, which will help us to save more than many variables in contiguous locations.
The interview you can start giving an answer from here – In practical we need a combination of above data types, few examples are
1) Collecting student information
2) Collecting patient information
3) CAR information to be saved. Like this many examples is possible.
If we save information in system-defined data types, it will be difficult to manage them as all those data will be saved in a different – different memory location. C language is having provision to save all required information one
place. It is called a user-defined data type.
Structure and union are user-defined data type which stored data collectively. See below example
struct time{
unsinged int MemRead;
char sec;
char min;
char hour;
The structure will be saving all its parameters in memory like this
embedded training institute in bangalore
The structure will reserve memory for each of these elements; it will take 4 bytes each char will take 1 byte. The good part is all variable is stored in a contiguous memory location.
We can make a variable from a structure like this
Struct time today_time;
Union – as the name suggests it will be the union of all collected data into it. It means the total memory allocated to the union variable is the maximum size of the variable. See in below
union time{
unsinged int MemRead ;
char sec;
char min;
char hour;
Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded system with Answers
So all three variable sec, min, hour will be saved into the same place. Many students ask us, what is the use of a union.
Structure and union together can make magic lets below example.
union time{
unsinged int MemRead;
struct time_segment{
char sec;
char min;
char hour;
char day;
Now see how this union will be seating into memory.
Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded System with Answers
Now when we read from memory we can read like this
un_time.MemRead = 0x01020304;
while using we can use like this
if (un_time.st_time.day ==5)
Printf(“today is holiday\n”);
Printf(“today is working\n”);
So hope it making sense, a combination of union and structure is an amazing thing to use. This is most widely used in the embedded system, see our other post which is having details description of union and structure.

6) What is the function pointer, write delectation (prototype of the following function pointer)?

A function pointer is a variable, which can hold the address of the function. This is used in callbacks. Since C is sequential language. It processes one by one. However, for some cases, we may need to call a function based on conditions. In C a function pointer can only achieve this.
Declare a function pointer which will take two int pointer as input and return a char pointer
char * (*foo)(int *a, int *b);
Declare a function pointer, which will return the function pointer structure pointer and accepts one character and one integer.
struct school* (*foo)(char a, int b);
we can also have an array of structure pointers like this
char * (*foo[5])(int *a, int *b);
this can save 5 address of functions. Like this
char * (*foo[5])(int *a, int *b) = {add, sub, mul, div, mod};
so when we can use an array of function pointer like this

7) What is size of character, integer, integer pointer, character pointer?

The size of a character is 1 byte. Size of an integer is 4 bytes.
Size of integer pointer and character is 8 bytes on a 64-bit machine and 4 bytes on32-bit machine. Size of pointers does not depend upon the type of parameters, because pointer needs to save memory address, it does not matter what we are going to save them or from that address who many bytes we want. We just need to save the address.

8) What is interrupt latency?

Interrupt latency is the time required for an ISR responds to an interrupt. When interrupts occur in the embedded system, then the processor finishes current instruction, save the value of the program counter and jump to the required ISR. Sometime if the processor is busy and serving another interrupt then another interrupt may be pending till processor/controller is gets free from current ISR. Until that time another interrupt has to wait, this is the interrupt latency.
Interrupt latency should be as minimum as possible, otherwise, some very important action may miss, this delay in execution may cause some big impact on system performance.

9) How to reduce interrupt latency?

In order to reduce interrupt latency, while designing the system we should take a minimum time as possible in the ISR. We should divide our ISR into two part, The top half and bottom half. Top half should be very small and control should come out as soon as possible, normally in this section, we just copy the data, and generate some flags.
In the bottom half of ISR, we are executing out of ISR, we keep monitoring the flag signal sent by top half. Once execution is completed in bottom half we clear the flags and waits for next interactions from system or ISR.

With this method, we occupy very less time in the ISR. So other interrupts can be executed faster than previous, this reduces interrupt latency.

10)What is the dynamic memory allocation? Where we can use this?

The dynamic memory allocation is one of the best features in of C language. Let’s see in details,
In C language we are having many system-defined data types like int, char, float, double etc. Size of each one is fixed like it is 4 bytes, char is one byte, the float is 4 bytes etc.
We are also having user-defined data types like struct, union. Here we struct reserve memory for each of its elements while union reserve memory for the highest data types.
We can also make an array like int dates[100], it will reserve 100*4 = 400 bytes in the memory. The same way we can have struct school mycityschool[50]. This will reserve size of memory = size of one structure * 50
All above data types reserve memory at the compile time. It means how much element we need we have decided at the time of compilation time itself. But in many practical conditions, we may not how many students will join today, or how many cars will be sold today, or how many patients will come today in the hospital.
So it means we can’t decide the size of at the time of compilation. We need to wait in real time use. Some need some method by which we can allocate memory on runtime. This type of memory allocation is called dynamic memory allocation.
An example is here:
Ptr = (int *) malloc (sizeof (int)*50). This malloc will reserve memory of total 4*50= 200 bytes into memory and return void pointer. Before using this we need to do typecast like (int *) and then we can use ptr memory of int array of 50 elements.
We can use malloc in run time to save any number of data we want, off-course memory should be available. What is the meaning of the above sentence?
It means the system is allocating memory from some reserved memory space this reserve memory space is called as HEAP memory. This is a section of memory which is used in dynamic memory allocation. Once use of memory is complete then we should make it free like this
Free (ptr); this will release memory to the system again and can be reused.
We are having one more point to discuss here. Malloc is just reserve memory, it won’t change contains memory. But in some application, we may need memory with initializing with 0 In that case either we reserve memory with the malloc and through memcpy we make the initialize with 0, Or we can use
Ptr = (int *) Calloc (number_of_element, size_of_each_element);
Here we have to give two input one is a number of the element, size of each element.
Ptr =(int *) calloc (50, sizeof(int)); This will reserve 50*4 bytes and initialize withzero also.

Choose the Best Embedded Training Institute in Bangalore

We are a Professional Training Institute provides complete hands-on practical training in the embedded system, if you looking for embedded system training in Bangalore then choose us, as you go through our review and check what our old student is saying, they believe we are top embedded institute in Bangalore.
We are confident with our skill and capability, come and join our one-month free demo class we are sure you will fall in love with our teaching methods.
Best of luck for your future.
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Syllabus of Embedded Systems Training in Bangalore

Syllabus of Embedded Systems Training in Bangalore

Syllabus of Embedded Systems Training in Bangalore

Professional training institute (PTI) is a Training organization, which is well known for providing quality education in advance fields such as Embedded System, C, Linux, CAN, Basic electronics, digital electronics, presently these are the hottest and best job-providing sectors. As the world changing fast, the technologies also changing day by day, we at professional training institute update our syllabus after every six months, we train the students according to the present using technologies in the industries.
We at Professional Training Institute train our student such a way that, it’s easy for them to work in industries as they will have good practical knowledge.
We at Professional Training Institute provide practical training such a way that our student getting an edge over others. Our main motto is to focus on practical and hands-on training to the student so that they are able to face any kind of interview in the embedded domain.

The Syllabus is Followed by Embedded Training Institute in Bangalore

This is 4-5 month course for B.E/B. Tech/MTech/ ME/ MCA/M. Sc Candidates Pre-final & Final Year with a background preferably Electronics, Electrical, Instrumentation or Computer science.

1. With this students will be handling their Mini & Final year project by themselves independently. If already completed engineering then this course will help to get job.
2. Our embedded training institute in Bangalore will provide 100% job assistance to our students. We give our full effort to get a job/place. We are having a dedicated team how is working with the placements.
3. Course Code: PTIESD0a – Comprehensive Embedded Systems Design Course is divided into following Major headings.

a) Basic Electronics and Digital Electronics.
b) Basic C.
c) Tools including S/W and H/W.
d) Basic of Hardware Concepts.
e) Basic Embedded.
f) Advance C.
g) Advance Embedded.
h) Basic Linux.
i) RTOS concepts.
j) Linux Internal and Linux Device Drivers.

Details Description of Syllabus of Embedded Systems Courses in Bangalore

Basics of Electronics and Digital Electronic

Sl# Unit Name Unit Objectives and Keywords
1 Basic Electronics
  • Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors.
  • PN-Junction.
  • Diodes.
  • Transistor.
  • Interpretation Data Sheet.
  • Half-Wave Rectifiers/ Full-Wave Rectifier.
  • Power Supply 3.3V,5.0V,12.0V, Voltage Regulators.
  • Crystals
  • Switches, Relays.
  • 7-Segment
  • 555 Timers in AS/MS/BS
Digital Electronics
  • Number System – Binary, Hex, Decimal,BCD System.
  • Addition/Subtraction of binary, 2’s complements.
  • Interconversion of number system.
  • Logic Gates – AND/OR/NOR/EXOR.
  • Filip-flop, Memory element.
  • Mux- De-Mux, Decoders.
  • Shift Registers.
  • Counters.

 Basics C

Sl# Unit Name Unit Objectives and Keywords
  • What is C?
  • Data Types
  • Variables
  • Naming Conventions for C Variables
  • Printing and Initializing Variables
  • Block Scope
  • Function Scope
  • File Scope
  • Program Scope
  • The auto Specifier
  • The static Specifier
  • The register Specifier
  • The extern Specifier
  • The register Specifier
  • The extern Specifier
  • if
  • if else
  • while
  • for
  • Endless Loops
  • do while
  • break and continue
  • switch
  • else if
  • #define
  • Macros
  • #include
  • Conditional Compilation
  • #ifdef
  • #ifndef
  • Function Declarations
  • Function Prototypes
  • Returning a Value or Not
  • Arguments and Parameters
  • Organization of C Source Files
  • Extended Example
  • Defining the Problem Space
  • A Programming Example
  • Bit Wise Operators
  • Bit Manipulation Functions
  • Circular Shifts
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Aggregate Operations
  • String Functions
  • Array Dimensions
  • An Array as an Argument to a Function
  • String Arrays
  • Example Programs
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Pointer Operators and Operations
  • Changing an Argument with a Function
  • call
  • Pointer Arithmetic
  • String Functions with Pointers
  • Pointer Difference
  • Prototypes for String Parameters
  • Relationship Between an Array and a Pointer
  • The Pointer Notation *p++
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Describing a Structure
  • Creating Structures
  • Operations on Structures
  • Functions Returning Structures
  • Passing Structures to Functions
  • Pointers to Structures
  • Array of Structures
  • Functions Returning a Pointer to a Structure
  • Structure Padding
  • typedef – New Name for an Existing Type
  • Bit Fields
  • unions
  • Non-Homogeneous Arrays
  • Enumerations


Tools Including S/W and H/W for Embedded Systems Training

Sl# Unit Name Unit Objectives and Keywords
  • Making project in Keil.
  • Keil features/ tabs
  • Memory models in Keil.
  • Debugger setting in Keil.
  • Linker settings in Keil.
2 Multimeter
  • Measuring Voltage/Current/Registers
  • Measuring continuity
  • Introducing BBT – Baring Board Test.
  • Use of CRO.
  • What is Trigger?
  • How to do setting in CRO.
  • Measuring Voltage/current from CRO
4 Logic Analyzer
  • What is Logic Analyzer
  • How to use Logic Analyzer
  • What is the use of a logic analyzer
  • For which protocol we can use a logic analyzer.
5 Soldering Iron/Heat GUN/
  • How to use Soldering Iron.
  • Precaution needs to take.

Basic Hardware Concepts  of Professional Training Institute

Sl# Unit Name Unit Objectives and Keywords
1 Designing Power supply
  • Design of power supply 5V.
2 Designing of 7 segment display
  • Study of 7 segment components
  • Designing Schematics of hardware
3 Hardware Design guidelines.
  • Important concepts during hardware Schematics design
  • Important concepts during hardware PCB lay-outing.
4 Active High/Active Low
  • Description of Active high and Active Low
5 EMI/EMC consideration
  • Use of Ground Plan
  • Use of De-coupling capacitor
  • Use of TVS Diode
6 Components Torrance and Data
sheet study
  • Component Torrance study.
  • Consideration during designing.
7 Certification/Standard

Basics of Embedded Systems

Sl# Unit Name Unit Objectives and Keywords
1 Microprocessor/
Basic Concepts and Review

  • Definition
  • Nomenclature
  • Buses – Address, Data, and Control
  • Architecture
  • Interfacing memory & I/O devices
  • Programming ( Assembly)
  • Monitor program
2 Micro-controller Microcontroller Basic Concepts and Review

  • Architecture
  • Interfacing memory & I/O devices
  • Programming ( Assembly)
  • Assignments
3 Assembly
  • Addition of two number.
  • Toggling Port with delay
  • Toggling Port with a timer.
  • Introduction of Interrupt.
  • Comparison interrupt and polling.
  • Communication with loopback.
  • Keyboard interface.
  • Controlling LED with Switches.
4 Embedded C Embedded C & Integrated Development Environment

  • Embedded C Programming
  • Data types
  • Pointers
  • Arrays
  • Pointer functions
  • Loops
5 Introducing ARM
  • Induction of ARM Architecture
  • Difference between ARM9/ARM11
  • Different ARM concepts
  • The advantage of ARM.

Advance C

Sl# Unit Name Unit Objectives and Keywords
1 Structure and union
  • Combination of Structure and union.
  • Bit fields in Structure.
  • Pointers to structure and union.
  • The advantage of Structure and union
2 Function Pointers Microcontroller Basic Concepts and Review

  • Function pointers.
  • Callbacks
  • Advantage/use of functions pointers.
3 Dynamic memory allocation
  • Malloc
  • Calloc
  • free
  • re-alloc
4 File operations
  • Opening A file
  • Closing a file
  • Writing some data in a file and reading back and printing.
  • The different mode in which file can be open and write.
5 String operation
  • Srtcpy
  • strcmp
  • strcat
  • strlen
  • strstr

Pre-requisites for the Embedded Training in Bangalore:

1. B.E/B. Tech/MTech/ ME/ MCA/M.Sc Candidates Pre-final & Final Year with a background preferably
Electronics, Electrical, Instrumentation or Computer science.

Professional Training Institute – Embedded Systems Training Institutes in Bangalore

Our training method is different, our students get hands-on experience, they do experiments individually, which helps them to understand each part clearly like for example in embedded part we train them on UART protocol, we make them think and write a program for UART protocol, and we let them do communication between two devices using the UART protocol, by all these they will have good understanding of the UART protocol and they can easily use UART anytime in future. In this way, they get more interest to know about different technologies and we make them work and think.
We start our embedded system training from basic electronics, we teach the importance of electronics components, circuit design and we train them to design a power supply for different voltages. During c-programming classes we make our student think of the logic of each programmer, we never help them for write program, instead we help them to think and solve, this help them develop their logical skills and they can able to write any different programs.
We make student to discuss in class, and to give a seminar, which helps our students to develop the communication skills.

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Embedded Systems Role in Automobiles with Applications

Embedded Systems Role in Automobiles with Applications

Embedded Systems Role in Automobiles with Applications

In today’s world, most electronic devices are based on Embedded Systems. Recently, In Automobiles also everything is used with the help of Embedded Systems only and all the mechanical systems in the Automobile has been completely replaced with the help of Embedded Devices. Nowadays, Automobiles making the complete use of Embedded System, where ever the Automobile system is depending purely on the Embedded Technology only. Ranging from Mp3 control to complex anti-lock brake control and Airbag systems controlling will be done by the
Embedded Systems in Automobile. Embedded systems have a huge variety of applications that vary from low to high-cost consumer electronics to industrial equipment, medical devices to weapon control systems, aerospace systems and entertainment devices to academic equipment, and so on. Embedded systems span all features of our present life. The applications of Embedded systems are shown below.
  • Automobile: Airbag systems, GPS, anti-locking brake system, fuel injection controller
  • devices, etc.
  • Home Appliances: Washing machines, microwave appliances, security systems,
  • dishwashers, DVD, HV and AC systems, etc.
  • Office Automation: Copy Machine, Fax, modem, smartphone system, printer, and scanners.
  • Entertainment: Video games, mp3, mind storm, smart toy, etc.
  • Security: Building security system, face recognition, airport security system, eye recognition
  • system, alarm system, finger recognition system etc.
  • Industrial Automation: Voltage, temperature, current, and hazard detecting systems, data
  • collection systems, assembly line, monitoring systems on pressure.
  • Aerospace: Flight attitude controllers, space robotics, automatic landing systems,
  • navigational systems, space explorer, etc.
  • Medical: Medical diagnostic devices: ECG, EMG, MRI, EEG, CT scanner, BP Monitor,
  • Glucose monitor.
  • Banking and Finance: Share market, cash register, smart vendor machine, ATM
  • Telecommunication: Cellular phone, web camera, hub, router, IP Phone
  • Personal: Data organizer, iPhone, PDA, palmtop.


Today, a typical automobile on the road has computer controlled electronic systems, and the most
commonly used embedded systems in a vehicle includes,
  • Black box
  • Airbags
  • Drive by wire
  • Adaptive cruise control
  • Anti-lock braking system
  • Telematics
  • Automatic parking
  • Satellite radio
  • Tyre pressure monitor
  • Traction control
  • In-vehicle entertainment system
  • Navigational Systems
  • Night vision
  • Backup collision sensors
  • Heads up display
  • Emission control
  • Climate control
So, the automobile industry is completely replaced all the mechanical parts with the
Embedded Design. There is huge applications from embedded systems in Automobile and recently
trying to implement the Self driving system also it is very helpful to the physically handicapped
and Old age people.
Various Embedded Products in an Automobile Car
For example, if you consider the Air bag system, it is an important safety device that provides an protection against accident. This system is works with the commands from the micro controller. If the sensors detects an accident, this micro controller operates the airbag system by operating alternator.
Embedded navigation systems, it is also an another advancement of the Embedded systems in automobiles in the navigational system using GPS system. This consist GPS receiver, a gyroscope, a DVD-ROM, map database, main controller and a display system. This will locate the live location of the vehicle and makes display the time estimated to the target place.
Satellite radio is an another application which provides radio service broadcast from satellites to automobiles. It is available by subscription and it is commercial free.
Adaptive cruise control is the another application, and it is useful to make driver less vehicle control in real-time by avoiding the accidents, this will be the better embedded products to be useful in the vehicles and this will allow the car to keep at the safe distance from the other vehicles. Each car has a laser transceiver or a microwave radar unit which is fixed in front of the car to find out the speed and distance of the any other vehicle in the pathway. This is works on the principle of Doppler Effect; it is nothing but change in frequency of the waves.
Embedded rain sensing system is the another application and this device will automatically detects the rain and it will automatically activates the windshield wiper. In this, an optical sensor is placed on small area of the front windshield glass (opposite to rear-view mirror). This optical sensor is placed at an angle to emit the infrared light which reads amount of light by it when the light is reflected back. This light is reflected in cases where the windshield is wet or dirty. Thus the optical sensor determines necessary speed and frequency of windshield wiper depends on reflected light into the sensor.

Drive by wire is an another application, where this system helps to replace the mechanical systems in automobiles with electronic systems using actuators and HMI(Human Machine interfaces) Components of the automobiles like belts, steering column, pumps, coolers, vacuum servos and master cylinders, hoses, intermediate shafts are eliminated.
Here, some of the major industries that help to develop these current trends in automobile industry
1. Atmel: Provides different controllers like ARM, 8051 Most of the body electronics, security, safety and automotive products are manufactured by them.
2. Texas Instruments: They provide different controllers, automotive control chips and DSPs to automobile industry.
3. Xilinx: Provides different CPLDs, FPGAs, and other application related cores for development of navigation systems, adaptive cruise control etc.
Silicon Providers, NxP, Analog devices, NEC, Renesas etc. are some other automobile industry. Now-a-days, there is huge openings on embedded systems with automobiles and every automobiles companies are replacing the embedded systems. So if any one want to growth your carrier in embedded Automobile so please join in good embedded System training institute. There is a top embedded training institute in Bangalore to provide the complete embedded system course. So, please join good embedded training institute and we are the Professional Training institute in Bangalore, we will provide you complete the Embedded system course in Automobiles.

Sensors and Embedded Systems in the Internet of Things

Sensors and Embedded Systems in the Internet of Things

Sensors and Embedded Systems in the Internet of Things

Embedded Systems and Sensors work together to be responsible for one of the most significant aspects of the IOT (Internet of Things). Helps to detect changes in the environment and an object.
Sensors are mainly used for the finding of changes in the logical and physical relationship of one object to another and the environment. Logical changes contain the presence or absence of an electronically perceptible entity, it may be location or activity. Physical changes may include light, temperature, pressure, motion, and sound.
The physical and logical changes are equally important within an IoT context. The Important different sensor types in an Industrial internet of things(IoT) context contains:
  • Pressure/ force sensor.
  • Humidity sensor.
  • Temperature sensor.
  • Ambient light or optical sensor.
  • Acoustic sensor.
  • Level/ flow sensor/leakage sensor.
  • Chemical/radiation /gas sensors.
  • Acceleration/Motion Sensor.
  • Unlocked/locked sensors.
  • Magnetic/electrical sensors.
Embedded system is an electronic device, its combination of both hardware and software, the embedded devices perform the specific task for which they are designed. Depending on the applications the embedded device may or may not be programmed.in our day to day life we will come across many embedded devices like mobile phones,
smart home controller, CD players, microwave oven and many more.
The embedded boards are supported by many different embedded controllers, which are developed using standard hardware and software units. Arduino is the most evolved embedded board, Arduino help to recognize the embedded system boards and it also used in the Internet of things. The Arduino architecture is a combination of embedded
Atmel controller family through particular hardware towards a board which has the built-in bootloader for plugs and run embedded applications.
In this modern world, embedded systems are most attracted devices due to some important factors like embedded devices are of very low cost. The power consumption is very low, the space consumption is very low so we can carry them easily. We can say Internet of thing is the device used transmit the information to people or from one device to other using the internet, the example of the internet of things are amazon echo, home automation, and security and many more.
It’s good to have knowledge of IoT and embedded system and its very good flat form to work, Internet of things have very good scope in the present world, we can say in future many IoT device will come which human life easier.so if anyone want to gain the knowledge in embedded system and want to have practical experience in it can join the professional embedded training institute in Bangalore.
The IoT demands a different set of microprocessors, drivers, batteries, peripherals, and operating systems than the conventional Embedded System used in general purpose computing systems. Conventional Embedded Systems are not proficient to deliver what the IoT is expecting from an embedded device networked in IoT and it brings great contests to develop or to transform the modern embedded system into an IoT enabled smart embedded system.
Basically, IoT is Embedded Systems and elegant substance coupled to the Internet with an exceptional IP address which can be communicated on the Internet. These compriseSensors external peripheral devices and actuators external peripheral devices. Internet of Things and devices of IoT are mix with embedded systems and smart things through the internet with different IP addresses which were used to discover and communicate.so you can learn more about IoT and embedded system through the embedded system training institute in Bangalore.

Evolutionary Trends in Embedded System Design

Evolutionary Trends in Embedded System Design

Evolutionary Trends in Embedded System Design

In every day of our life, we will meet with a lot of embedded system devices. It can be either a cell phone, a smart card, a music player, a router or the electronics in the automotive _ all these devices touching and changing our lives like never before. If someone asks us to explain about embedded systems we can answer them like, it is a combination of computer hardware, software and other supporting technical components with all which is designed to perform a dedicated task.

Recent Trends in Embedded Systems:

The below given are the trends in embedded systems.

Multi-core Processors :

For quite a long time we are familiar and using widespread 8-bit controllers for powering a lot of embedded applications. Like in automotive, home appliances, etc. For the better or higher the performance we can upgrade to 16-bit controllers or 32-bit controllers to use in cell phone and media players.
By the evolution o the micro-controllers from 8bit to 32bit, there were no challenges or programming changes in the architecture of controllers. But it is a challenge when a transition to a multi-threaded architecture. So multi-core programming requires a change in embedded applications. Like, developers need to change systems architecture, design, debugging, testing to get the best from these systems.

Wireless :

In the embedded systems industry, embedded devices were operating as stand-alone systems. But by the invention of wireless connectivity, the scenario got changed. We are connecting the devices with wireless protocols to transmit and receive data. For this purpose we are using short-range protocols like Bluetooth, Zigbee, RFID, etc. and long-range protocols like Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN), WiMAX, long-term evolution(LTE)Etc.

SoC Architectures :

SoC architecture means a system on chip architecture. For the low-cost applications device, there are a lot of developments are happening in the architecture of wireless devices. For this good improvement are happening in this direction are the integration of microcontrollers with radio modem in 64 pin configuration microcontrollers. Similar devices are available in the respective market also.

Power Consumption :

Another main change researchers want in this field is to reduce the power consumption. For that, they are looking forward to making the device, which should remain in sleep mode when it is not doing anything. That means when the in the “sense and transmit” the sensing will be scheduled. So whenever the device wants to sense then only it becomes active. Rest of the time (for more than 99% of the time)it can go under sleep mode. This period current consumption will be 1-2microA.

Increased Use of Open Source Technology :

In older days, the embedded system was employed with hardware, software, communication protocols and their own built operating systems for their development. Because the payment for the license of operating systems is high.
But now the scenario is changing, we are able to get operating systems freely. Free in the sense of there are a lot of open sources operating systems are coming so we can use it for our product development. For example Embedded Linux. Embedded Linux licensed and a free version still remains a good choice for a lot of developers.

Security :

As the increase in the world of interconnected the security also became a problem for embedded devices. Now everything we are doing with the ease of internet only so all the required data we are sharing on the internet and related devices. The security requirements depend on memory, its middleware, and low computing power. Embedded security is the new important matter among embedded devices. The improvement in the field of embedded security will matter on embedded encryption, trusted computing, cryptology, authentication.

Smart Devices :

When we hear the “smart first thing ” we will remember smartphones. Nowadays we can do all our works on mobile. Machine to machine communication(m2m) has been used for the remote applications. Now we are using the machine to machine communication for the new applications with the help of IOT, where communication between the devices is on the internet only. Most of this kind of applications are happening on mobile based products only.

Our Embedded Training Institute in Bangalore :

So the topics what we have explained or discussed here are already have implemented on the design of firmware development, hardware, marketing of the embedded devices. There are lot researchers are working on all of these concepts to give much better n better results for the coming future. So, students who are looking for a career in the embedded systems field, they can build a bright future in this field. Embedded systems industry have a lot of other industries or in all most every industry we can give a touch of embedded systems. There are a lot of embedded systems training institutes in Bangalore or other cities of India. To find out best-embedded systems courses from fields is depends on your interest in the same. We Professional training institute giving industrial technology-oriented embedded training program in Bangalore. We giving a free career development counseling for those who are interested in this field.

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How Much Does an Embedded Systems Engineer Make?

How much does an embedded systems engineer make

How Much Does an Embedded Systems Engineer Make?

This is a little subjective topic, we can’t have a general formula to find the salary. For example, two candidates join in the same company on the same salary but after a year it will depend upon how an individual is working into the organization and it is confidential matter also.
I will introduce my self so that you can understand how I got the knowledge which I am discussing here. I am Yogesh Kumar Sharma having 15+ years of experience in embedded system development. Currently running a practical based embedded training institute in Bangalore which is a Professional Training Institute. Before starting training institute I was working as Deputy Manager in one of Big MNC. I got an opportunity to take interview of many experience candidates, freshers, that company was also recruiting from NIT, and IIT and I was a recruitment manager in that company.
Okay enough of me, come to point now…
I had seen a candidate is having 4.5 years of experience and he was having a salary around 9.00 LPA and he was working in Toshixx, I know one candidate who was working in Tata Powxx for 9 years and having the salary of around 15 LPA, I know the fresher who is having salary of around 6.5 LPA. (i know many such peoples) etc. I can easily say that Embedded candidate salary is very high. All these candidates are from normal private engineering colleges. This is the bright side of the embedded system, only knowledge matter here.
But one fine the day I meet Mr. Venkatesh. he was having around 10 years of experience (as he told me) but he doesn’t have a job, and he was looking for the job, and he is ready to work for a very low salary like 10k per months. I thought I will hire him in my company, but he not able to answer any questions, then I understand why he is struggling in life. So I guide all students to learn the embedded system through embedded systems training institutes in Bangalore which are provided with practical training as well as how to answer interview questions.
So friends Embedded having very promising salary, very attractive career, very safe job. Future in the embedded system is also safe as many devices are still running manually, so all those devices. you read our other post where I had mentioned about future scope of the embedded system.
At last, I will say the embedded system is a very promising field if you have good knowledge. In Our Professional Training Institute, we focus on each and every student, and we ensure they are learning the concepts. So come and explore the possibility.

Introduction to Embedded System Basics and Applications

Introduction to Embedded System Basics and Applications

Introduction to Embedded System Basics and Applications:

An embedded system is just like a computer system which is mainly designed to perform some particular tasks like to control the data in different electronics-based systems, to access the data, process, and to store the data. Embedded systems are the hardware and software combinations, these systems are designed to do some specific tasks. The most important feature of the embedded system is it regenerates the output within very less time limit. In our day to day life, we will come across many embedded systems.
The main applications of embedded systems which come across are like a TV remote control, microwave, home security, calculators, and neighborhood traffic control systems, washing machine and many more. If you want to be an expert in the embedded system then join the best Embedded training institute in Bangalore, where you can get to know the importance of the embedded system.
best embedded training institute in Bangalore
The embedded system hardware is assembled with the Microcontroller and microprocessors and they use hardware system to perform the operations. The components of embedded systems are input devices like sensors, output devices, memory, the display unit, and user interfaces.
The embedded system consisting of hardware and software both, below figure shows the basic block diagram of the embedded system.
best embedded training institute in Bangalore
The embedded system hardware is assembled with the Microcontroller and microprocessors and they use hardware system to perform the operations. The components of embedded systems are input devices like sensors, output devices, memory, a display unit, and user interfaces.
The embedded system consisting of hardware and software both, below figure shows the basic block diagram of the embedded system.
So embedded system have very good future and who want to start their carrier in embedded field, it’s a good decision, and now day’s we get many embedded training institutes in Bangalore, so you can select the Professional Training Institute, Where you will get the very good knowledge of the embedded system.

Embedded System Hardware:

The main components of the embedded system are
  • Power supply.
  • Processors
  • Timers.
  • Memory.
  • Input and output circuits.
  • System application specific circuit.
  • Parallel communication ports.
  • Serial communication ports.

Embedded system software:

To execute any particular operation we write the software for the embedded device, it is generally written in a high-level format and then it is compiled down in order to offer the code which can be stuck within a non-volatile memory in the hardware. An embedded system software is proposed to have in view of the following three parameters.
  • Accessibility of processor’s speed
  • When the embedded system runs continually, there is a requirement to limit power dissipation for activities like run, stop and wake up.
  • The convenience of system memory.

Characteristics of Embedded systems:

The embedded systems are designed to do some specific task and it does similar operation continually.
  • All the systems have boundaries on design metrics, but those can be obtained. Design metric is a portion of an execution features like size, cost, power and also performance and the embedded system meets all design constraints.
  • The embedded systems continually react to variations in the system and them also calculate specific results in real time without any delay
  • It performs operation very fast enough and so it consumes less power that can increase battery life.
  • An Embedded system is integrated with hardware and software where the hardware is used for a security and performance and Software is used for more features and flexibility.
  • The embedded system is based on a microcontroller or microprocessor.
  • Embedded system contains memory, as its software normally inserts in ROM.so system does not need any secondary memories in the PC.
  • To connect input & output devices the embedded system consist of peripherals.

Applications of embedded systems:

Embedded systems are used in almost all fields like Home automation, automotive, automobile, agriculture, and defense etc.
  • Embedded Systems in digital consumer electronics include DVDs, set-top boxes, high definition TVs and digital cameras.
  • Embedded Systems also used in satellites and missiles contain defense, communication, and aerospace.
  • Embedded systems are used in telecommunications which include mobile computing, networking, and wireless communications, etc.
  • Embedded systems applications in computer networking & peripherals contain image processing, networking systems, printers, network cards, monitors and displays.

Get to know more about Embedded system with Professional Training Institute.

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Best Certification Courses in Embedded Systems and IOT

embedded systems training in bangalore

Best Certification Courses in Embedded Systems and IOT Training

The word Embedded means fix (an object) firmly and deeply in a surrounding mass. So in the same way in electronics, we fixing or adding software and hardware in one system.
Embedded systems are one of the fastest growing fields in the current world. Everything around us is growing into automation. So the scope for this field is also high. So students who are good at embedded systems skills set can have a bright future in their career. Now it comes to the importance of the embedded systems courses.
There are a lot of different embedded systems courses we can find out in today’s market. Depending upon companies requirements in this field students should get trained. There are a lot of different embedded systems courses in Bangalore and other cities in India. Here we are going to discuss some different courses in embedded systems.

Embedded Systems Training – Intermediate:

This course is mainly looking for fresher who are looking for a career in the embedded system field. There are a lot of institutes giving embedded systems training in Bangalore and other cities in India in intermediate level training. All the thing we have to check is their syllabus and hands-on practice in programming and projects.

Intermediate level training usually will include,

  • C/Embedded C,
  • Data structures programming,
  • Microcontroller programming,
  • Linux,
  • Operating systems concepts

Embedded Systems – Advanced :

This course is mainly focusing deep understanding in embedded systems. Most of the embedded systems training institutes in Bangalore will focus on Linux device drivers and data structures-queue, stack tree.
  • Embedded systems programming using Advanced C and Data Structures.
  • Algorithms.
  • Course on Linux and Networking.
  • Micro-controllers (8051 and PIC) programming.
  • Linux device drivers.
  • Embedded Linux on ARM9.


Internet of things, it’s coming to our everyday life .when the things are coming under the internet and there is no any human effort to send and receive data to a location and from so we can call that system is under IOT.
More clearly nowadays we are using smartphones, with which we can get the information about everything, yes..here everything means everything through the internet. We can watch movies, play online games, videos, music, banking over smartphones. Before smartphones, we were using cell phones with which we can call, text only.
So in the same way internet are using in other fields of industries. Then the new field came in embedded systems IOT.

Embedded Systems Training Institutes in Bangalore are giving training in IOT.

  • Overview of IoT and its high-level architecture
  • Setting up IoT workflow
  • Programming with Advanced C / Embedded C
  • using Arduino Micro-controller programming
  • Python Programming
  • Building IoT Application projects using Raspberry Pi
  • IoT Protocols: HTTP, CoAP, MQTT, AMQP, 6LoWPAN…
  • IoT Cloud Infrastructure
  • Performance and Security in IoT

Embedded Android System Development:

Nowadays a new field of technology from embedded technology is emerging with customized fields of Android operating systems is called Embedded Android Systems development. Even though we will feel like android is different for the embedded OS, but Android is actually an embedded OS it’s from Embedded LINUX. Actually embedded Android is a good choice for an embedded operating system if we are using for other than mobile devices which need a user interface or multimedia capabilities. Also, it gives a stable kernel, no issues of royalties or licensing and we will get a wide range of open libraries of open source code and device drivers. All these make an embedded system more approachable/accessible to developers and manufacturers.

Embedded Linux:

This course aims to produce students who can develop an embedded Linux system on low-cost yet powerful Arm based platforms.
After the course student will have the knowledge and understanding of
  • Embedded Linux operating system architecture
  • Linux-based embedded system component stack 
  • Linux kernel modules
  • System configuration and the boot process
  • Communication between kernel space and user space 
  • System debugging and profiling.
These are trending embedded courses in the industry. Students who are looking for a career in the embedded field they can select any one of the courses given above.


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