Modern Education

EMBEDDED BSP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

Q1.What is embedded BSP?

A1. BSP is a commonly used embedded industry term implying a certain  source or else binary software package for quickly building an embedded operating system on a hardware platform.

  • In Windows CE, a BSP is a collection of the following:-

1)drivers and OEM Adaptation Layers

2) hardware abstraction layers

3) BIOS files necessary to allow an operating system to boot and make the peripherals function on a board.

Q2. Are BSP’s customisable or are they fixed by the user(non rootable)?

A2. Yes they can be user designable as well.

  • It enables to update the existing  drivers so that the user can specify which particular routines to be embedded in the firmware soas to match the software-hardware changes.
  • Eg:- An individual on board chip may be equipped with more than one graphic card.

So in that condition the BSP designer has to equip the corresponding graphic cards with the corresponding software drivers.

Q3. Are there any extra developer tools available in the BSP?

  • A3.Yes not all but some BSP developers include a toolchain inside the BSP known as root file system to configure the system during run time.
  • Most of the Real time operating system developers may include aiding tools such as:-
  1. Utilities
  2. Templates
  3. Developers assistance
  • These tools encourage more and more developers to design their own BSP.

Q4. List out the primary functions of a BSP?

A4. They are as follows:-

  1. Start up the processor
  2. Start up the data bus
  3. Start up the controller interrupt(microcontroller)
  4. Ready the  clock signal
  5. Ready the RAM settings
  6. Arrange the segments
  7. Startup the bootloader and then run it from flash memory(USB or EEPROM)

Q5. In which year was the term BSP coined it and who are the founders?

A5. The original developers were Hunter and Ready and the year was 1981 when they discovered the hardware dependent software.

  • It was virtually implemented in almost all Real time Operating Systems.

Q6. What were the basic elements/standard files present within the BSP in addition to the other  files?

A6. The basic files included in one of the BSP(Wind River Board) for example are:-

  1. Configuration header files(config.h)
  2. The makefiles for each individual BSP
  3. Boot ROM file
  4. Reference target files
  • Also it included these standard C library files:-
  1. Primecellsio.h- TTY driver
  2. Pcilomapshow.c- Shows the corresponding mapping file for the PCI driver
  3. Syslib.c- the routines for system that are specific to the BSP board
  4. Rominit.c – starting ROM module for the BSP board that comprises of images running from ROM

About Us: Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
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E – BOOK

E – BOOK

INTRODUCTION

  • Literally speaking E-  book is an electronic form of book publication.
  • It consists of either text, images or other form of digital media embedded into it.
  • They can be viewed on e-readers(electronic reading devices).
  • It can also be viewed on the personal desktops, and other commonly used electrical devices such as tabs, etc.

HISTORY:

  • During the year of 1930 Bob Brown invented the E – reader.
  • The way he wanted it to be was implied in his quote that suggested the it should be portable and it must have the ability to view thousands of these documents within our palm.

An example of E -reader from Amazon

BROWNS DESIGN OF E- Reader:

  • He predicted the following features would be implemented in near future:
  1. The text can be user adjustable
  2. Recycle paper by saving more trees
  3. Miniaturisation of devices
  4. Should create a entertaining and engaging environment for the reader to dive into.

Fig 2. The very first embedded book.

LIMITATIONS OF E- book:

  1. They are more suited to old people who has impaired vision or low eyesight.
  2. Many older men or women would not prefer these devices as they enjoy reading the traditional book itself.
  3. Insufficient privacy credited to the reader  as many third party applications tend to gather personal info from user.
  4. The books that are printed are usually regarded as an object in traditional culture.

About us:

Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
review link –  https://goo.gl/oQ1STh

 

EMBEDDED BOOTLOADER

INTRODUCTION:

  1. It is a technique of burning the code into the microcontroller in the absence of an external programmer.

REQUIREMENTS:

  1. Entight connection from board to pc via USB.
  2. One microcontroller(PIC) already programmed with a bootloader.

INSTALLATION STEPS:

STEP 1:

  • For the bootloader to operate properly we need to access  boot mode.
  • Don’t let go the reset button until the activation of boot mode when the USB cable is attached to the port.

STEP 2

  • Note that the required driver installation will fail due to the absence of the drivers by default, therefore we have to install them manually.

STEP 3:

  • UPDATE  UNKNOWN DEVICE DRIVERS

STEP 4:

  • From the given popup window select browse for drivers

STEP 5:

Enter the path to where the corresponding drivers can be found in directory path and after that click install.

STEP 6:

STEP 7:

  • Now we can view the microchip device from the device manager settings under all settings tab.

VECTOR MAPPING:

  • Writing code for a bootloader is quite analogous to what we used to perform  in cases except for some slight variations.
  • The main difference comes where the user program starts from the address 0x800.
  • Therefore  the address of the reset vector should be at 0x800.
  • Normally , reset is in position 0x00 and the interrupt vectors are in 0x08 and 0x18, therefore they have to be remapped.

PROCEDURE:

  • You have  to set the code offset as 0x800 for the project to be compiled.
  • For that that,  project properties ->xc8 linker.
  • Then from the Options Categories  menu, click on  Additional options.
  • Finally add  800 corresponding to the displayed  code offset box.

BURNING NEW PROGRAMS USING BOOTLOADER:

 

  • Initially Boot into bootloader mode by pressing the reset key without leaving it   via connecting the USB cable until boot menu shows up.
  • Next click on the PDFUSB.exe file  from the Pdfusb folder.
  • Afterwards select PICUSB 0 as the boot  device.
  • Finally dump the hex file via button.
  • Suppose the loaded code starts from a random memory than 0x800,  you will need to put an extra line to your created hex file.
  • Observe that the text circled in red  is 4262E20, which points to the starting address.

About Us: Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
review link –  https://goo.gl/oQ1STh

 

Embedded access:

Embedded access:

INTRODUCTION:

  • Here the RFID system is designed.
  • The need for automatic access have become very prominent in the modern century today.

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR RFID:

Major components of ATTENDANCE system (RFID):

TAG(RFID):

  • It comprises a silicon microchip made of silicon that is mounted on a substrate base.
  • The chip is attached to an antennae.
  • The whole chip is encapsulated in either glass or plastic veil.
  • It also has an adhesive back coating in order for it to stick to some tag or object.

PRACTICAL APPROACH OF RFID:

  • In order to take the attendance of all the members within a organisation we can employ this system.
  • The basic idea is to use a swiping access card as a means of biometric register(not really.)

2.READER:

  • It comprises of  a scanner equipped with antennas in order to transmit and receive data from tag.

3.MICROCONTROLLER:

  • Its primary function is to receive the readers data input and then processes it.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF RFID SYSTEM:

The Active system:

  • Within this system the tag comprises is own power source similar to any battery or external power source .
  • Constraint involved here is only the lifetime of the existing  power devices.
  • These devices can be employed  for long distance communication and to also to keep a track of expensive goods vehicle.

The Passive system:

  • Within this  system the tag gets sufficient  power via transfer of power from the  reader antenna towards the tag antenna.
  • These devices  are employed for short distance communication.

TWO MAIN METHODS OF POWERING UP TAG(RFID TAG):

  1. The Passive system employing  Induction coupling method:
  • Within this system  the RFID tag obtains power from the data reader via inductive coupling method.
  • Data reader comprises of a single coil connected to an AC supply so that  a magnetic field encircles it.
  • Now the tag coil is placed next to the reader coil(very close).Subsequently  an electromotive force induces inside it according to the nature of Faraday’s law of induction.
  • The resulting  Electromotive force  causes a current surge  into the coil within the reader, thereby creating a magnetic field surrounding it.
  • According to Lenz law, the magnetic field so produced from the tag coil negates  the reader’s magnetic field and there will be an eventual increase in the current within the reader coil.
  • The Data reader understands this as the input data  information.
  • This sort of RFID system is much appropriate for negligible short distance transmission .
  • The subsequent Alternating Current  voltage created about the tag coil is thereby converted to DC with the aid of  rectifier and filter setup.

An example of a Passive RFID system with EM wave propagation method:

  • Here the antenna that is embedded within the reader sends out  electromagnetic waves.
  • These waves are subsequently  received by the antenna embedded within the tag as  a potential difference is created across the dipole.
  • Subsequently the voltage so produces  is rectified and finally filtered to get the  desired Direct current(DC) power.
  • Note that the receiver antenna is placed at a different impedance thereby  making it to reflect a part of the received signal.
  • Finally the reflected signal is obtained by the data reader and compared to existing databases programmed into the system  accordingly and timingly.

About us:

Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
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Embedded binaries

Embedded binaries are binary files, it is  copied to your application clump when you are going to build the project. By using embedded binaries you can make like, your application depend on third-party frameworks so people can use your application without required those frameworks installed on their machine. It is  keep users from having to manually install third-party frameworks. Your application used the framework of your embedded.

In your Alamo fire example your application is relied on Alamo fire. If you haven’t been embed the Alamo fire framework, no one would be allowed  to use your application unless they installed Alamo fire manually. By embedding Alamo fire with your application everybody can run your application.

About Us: Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
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Embedded block diagram

Embedded System is not a specific type of system. It can be part of any small or big system and its act like a brain of that system. it vary from each other in different ways. It is  very much in use in our daily life. They can range from a simple Digital Clock, or washing machine or calculator or a wireless network adapter to a mobile phone. They can be very small as in medical systems or very big as in satellites or projectile systems.

A generic block diagram could be thought of as something like this:

The above diagram is just example block diagram of embedded system for the application of digital thermostat.

While you are going to make a block diagram. You should remember all those things(input unit,output unit, controlling part, memory etc..)

In below i mentioned what are the input unit and output units and controlling units.

  • Keypad- input
  • Processor/controller – control part
  • Display-output
  • ADC-input
  • Thermostat circuit- input
  • Heater /ac control – output

About Us: Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
review link –  https://goo.gl/oQ1STh

Embedded Android

Embedded Android

A new reproduce of embedded technology is appear, using modify (something) to suit a particular individual or task  versions of the Android OS. At first redden, Android may sound like an alternate choice as an embedded Operating system, but in reality Android is already an embedded Operating system, its radicle derive from Embedded Linux. Where Android becomes proper as an embedded OS outside of mobile devices is in devices which need, a user interface or multimedia capabilities. Android offers assorted advantages over relating to an owner embedded operating systems, not the smallest of which is intercontinental awareness  in developing for the programme. Other advantages incorporate a stable no royalties or licensing fees, kernel, and a vast library of open source code and device drivers. All of these things amalgamate to construct creating an embedded system more attainable to developers and manufacturers.

Embedded Android OS is not without its imperfection however. Like all general purpose embedded operating systems, the code base transfer noteworthy deal with overhead and a larger memory footmark when contrast to relating to an owner  embedded OS’s. There is considerable practicality that is either irrelevant or not suited toward embedded systems crust, of mobile devices. The beauty of an open source operating system like Android however, is that individuals and companies similar are free to strip down, change, and add to the source code to outfit their business necessity.

About us: Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
review link – https://goo.gl/oQ1STh

 C PROGRAM TO DELETE SPECIFIC LINE FROM FILE  

 

  • From the user input the file name or path and the specific line number user want delete from file.Here filename is “data.txt” and ‘deleteline’is variable which store line number entered by user.

The file is opened in read mode.

  • Created the file name ‘Copyfile”   and open in write mode.
  • To keep the track of current line temporary variable is used and at starting it initialized as temp=0;
  • Read the data from the file which is in  read mode .
  • If the current line is not equal to the delete line then copy the the data to file which is in write mode.
  • Temp variable is incremented. (temp++);
  • The above three steps are repeated till end of file(EOF);
  • Once all data is read and copied from file close both the files(fclose)
  • At last read the file where  the data was copied.

#include<stdio.h>

#include<stdlib.h>

int main(void)

{

    FILE *fp,*fp1;//fp and fp1 are file pointers;

    char ch;

    char filename[100];

    int temp,deleteline;

fp=fopen(“data.tax”,”r”);

if(fp!=NULL)

    {

            printf(“file is opened \n”);

    }

    else

    {

            printf(“file is not opened \n”);

    }

    while(ch!=EOF)

    {

            ch=fgetc(fp);

            printf(“%c”,ch);

    }

    printf(“enter the line you want to delete\n”);

    scanf(“%d”,&deleteline);

    fp1=fopen(“copyfile2.c”,”w”);

    ch=fgetc(fp);

    while(ch !=EOF)

    {

while(ch !=EOF)

    {

            ch=fgetc(fp);

            if(ch==’\n’)

            {

                    temp++;

                    if(temp!=deleteline)

                    {

                            fputc(ch,fp1);

                    }

            }

    }

    fclose(fp);

    fclose(fp1);

 

    fp=fopen(“copyfile2.c”,”r”);

    while(ch!=EOF)

    {

            ch=fgetc(fp);

            printf(“%c”,ch);

    }

    fclose(fp);

    return 0;

}

About us:

Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
review link –  https://goo.gl/oQ1STh

 

 

               

 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EMBEDDED C AND C

INTRODUCTION:

  • Embedded C is necessarily an extended version of C.It is required to suit the modern embedded applications such that the programming hassle free, optimizable  and time efficient in producing an executable code (hex format dumped into microcontroller).


Fig 1. A typical example of c console for ATM banking options

 

C ProgrammingEmbedded C PROGRAMMING
  • C:- It is a general purpose high level programming language. Its founder is Dennis Ritchie in the 1970 era.
  • It was discovered by an ISO group a.k.a Extensions for Programming Language C to program Embedded Processors”
  • Typically used for the modern desktops.
  • Used for microcontroller based applications eg. 8051, PIC etc.
  • It can utilize sufficient memory resources such as PC memory and RAM
  • It can use only very limited resources such as internal ROM, RAM and Input output resources.
  • Comprises only of the standard C data types such as  functions, variables, structures, unions , linked lists and
  • Contains extra features such as input/ output register mapping, multiple memory and fixed point.
  • The C compilers(ANSI) usually yields system dependant executables.
  • Here the compilers need to create the output in hex format in order to be dumped into the microprocessor.
  • Has a console
  • Generally console is absent.
  • It is in its purest form with basic C syntaxes and declarations.
  • It is essentially an aggregation of assembly and C language.
  • C produces .exe file as executables which is usually executed on a console.
  • Embedded C produces hex file as executables to be dumped into microprocessor
  • C++ is another extension of C which is like a successor.
  • It has all the high level programming features of C language
  • Introduced Reusability in data types such as variables and functions etc.
  • Makes use of reusability feature in C so as to release updates more frequently over the existing firmwares of applications.

About us:Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
review link –  https://goo.gl/oQ1STh
EMBEDDED CAREER

EMBEDDED CAREER

INTRODUCTION

  • First up all we must be aware about the future scope of embedded.
  • It is a very vast field in  which u can work all the way from architecture down to the implementation level logic.
  • The various exciting domains in the field of embedded include:-
    1. Firmware engineer
    2. Firmware test engineer
    3. Software test engineer
    4. Systems integration engineer
    5. Firmware validation engineer.
  • The world of embedded is forever evergreen and yield a bright future for the budding electrical engineers of the 21st century.
  • The main core areas that u can work on when working in the embedded industry are:-
  1. After sales supporting team
  2. Development side
  3. Future updates in the application
  4. Systems architecture engineer.

LIMITATIONS:

  • If you are really keen to be an embedded developer then u can’t just ignore the hardware limitations of the microprocessor used.
  • This above statement means that the coding must be appropriate and fine tuned to the hardware specifications.
  • Related Documents: https://www.ptinstitute.in/embedded-c-tutorial/ 

     

     

    About us:Professional Training Institute is one of the top Embedded System training Institute in Bangalore, Our unique training practical based training approach makes every student as knowledgeable and experienced. Our student Practical hands on training in Embedded system makes student employable. And also till now are having 100% placement records in our Embedded system.

    Read our Google review here and see what our past student are saying about us.
    review link –  https://goo.gl/oQ1STh

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